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Proxemics and Haptics

Please explain appropriate use of proxemics and haptics in a counseling session with an African American (black) client (and the counselor is white).

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Proxemics is the study of how far apart people stand from one another. The concept is credited to the work of Edward Hall, who referred to the study of how humans construct and manage "microspace", or the distance between people in everyday transactions [e.g., home, buildings, etc] (Nonverbal communicaiton theories). Haptic behaviors are touch-based interactions that represent some meaning to the user (Swindellis, Maksakov, MacLean & Chung, n.d.). When communicating and comparing cultures, empirical research suggests that interpersonal distance, body orientation are due to different factors that influence proxemic and haptic behaviors.

For example, Remland, Jones, & Brinkman, (1991 examined the influence of culture on proxemic and haptic behaviors and found that intercultural haptic and proxemic behaviors have little variations. However, cross cultural awareness is noted in the communication interactive process for people of different cultures. For example, research suggests that Caucasians use the largest zone of personal space; whereas ...

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This solution explains the appropriate use of proxemics and haptics in a counseling session.