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Infant Development

I need help answering the following.

Please be concise. If you use of any references, please include in text, citation, and please provide reference list.

Please answer the following questions:

1. Describe Erikson's psychosocial stages of infant development.

2. Define attachment, explain how it is measured and how it is influenced by context, and discuss the long-term consequences of secure and insecure attachment.

3. Discuss the links between the infant's emerging self-awareness and his or her continuing emotional development.

4. Contrast the perspectives of behaviorism, cognitive theory, and sociocultural theory regarding psychosocial development in the first two years of life.

Thank you.

Solution Preview

Hi,

Excellent questions! Let' take a closer look.

RESPONSE:

1. Describe Erikson's psychosocial stages of infant development.

The first stage deals with infant development, which is referred to as Psychosocial Stage 1 where psychological conflicts need to be competed (trust vs. mistrust). According to Erikson, the first stage of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. According to theory, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality (trust) or failing to develop that quality (mistrust) leading to personal growth or failure.

In the first stage, for example, an infant is dependent on caregivers, so the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers. The theory predicts that if a child successfully develops trust, she or he will feel safe and secure in the world. Conversely, caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. This often carries over into adulthood until this crisis is resolved, often through counseling or therapy.
In other words, the child, well - handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, she or he becomes insecure and mistrustful.

2. Define attachment; explain how it is measured and how it is influenced by context, and discuss the long-term consequences of secure and insecure attachment.

Although attachment can pertain to all people, regardless of age, it typically relates to the attachment between children and caregivers (usually the mother). Attachment is defined "an emotional tie or bond between two people. This is a very powerful bond that is important for survival - it keeps infants close to their mothers which is important for getting food, staying away from danger, and getting comfort." (1)

One way to measure attachment is through AINSWORTH'S Strange Situation Assessment as follows:

1. Parent and child are along in the room
2. Child explores the room without parental participation
3. Stranger enter the room and talks to the parent and approaches he child
4. Parent quietly leaves the room
5. Parent then returns and comforts the child (2)

Based on the observations in the 1970s using the above assessment tool, Ainsworth concluded that there were three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. Later, a fourth attachment style was added known as disorganized-insecure ...

Solution Summary

This solution describes Erikson's psychosocial stages of infant development. It also defines attachment and explains how it is measured and influenced by context. This solution also discusses the long-term consequences of secure and insecure attachments. The links between the infant's emerging self-awareness and his or her continuing emotional development is also explained. It then contrasts the perspectives of behaviorism, cognitive theory, and sociocultural theory regarding psychosocial development in the first two years of life.

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