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    Description of a client based on various counseling theories

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    "Most of my life I have felt pushed and pulled. My father pushed me in to school, all sports, and all events, and over the years my resentment grew towards him. He was always directing my life and berating me when I challenged his authority. My mother always showed her love for me and tried to pull me under her wing, telling me she would protect me. I have always rejected this because I never believed she meant what she said.
    I received my Engineering degree from UBC and have been offered a job with a small construction firm in Vancouver. However, I don't want to put in an apprenticeship year so I don't know whether to take the job or wait until something better comes along. I am 24 years old and am still unemployed. I rejected my father's wishes to go into medicine. Most of my life revolves around today, with a lack of definition of "what a man should be".
    I want to have a great deal of money and power but I do not want to work in a job that keeps me from doing the things I enjoy. I love to paint and play the guitar. I love the outdoors. I think I should have been an ecologist. If we don't take care of our environment, there won't be an environment to take care of. I received 80% in my ecology courses. I like people but prefer to work at things by myself because I know I won't be criticized. Maybe I'll go back to school."

    How would the following theorists describe Mark based on their career development theories. Please be specific about the client and support your answers.Thank you!

    a. Holland

    b. Roe

    c. Krumboltz

    d. Tiedeman

    e. CIP Theory (Peterson, Sampson, and Reardon)

    f. Gottfredson
    Here is some more information on this theorist, I couldn't attach her article here, as the file was too big. Please view it at:

    g. Lent, Brown and Hackett

    h. Young and Collin

    I am looking for more of personal notes instead of copies from internet sources. Although, the response of course needs to be empirically based and opinions supported by the scientific research findings . Thanks for the help!

    A response thorough yet concise for each part of the question, reflecting knowledge of career counselling theories and intervention strategies would be great!

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    Solution Preview

    a. Holland:
    John Holland would assign the code ASC to Mark as it is the code proposed by him in his theory of Career Typology which is based on an individual's hereditary traits and life history regarding how one reacts to the demands posed by the environment. According to John Holland's theory of Career Typology, Mark is described as being artistic (A) as he enjoys working in a free and creative environment where in he can enjoy whatever he does. He loves painting and playing the Guitar. He loves to work where he can enjoy lot of freedom and in an unstructured environment. He wishes to express himself in his own unique manner by working as an ecologist as he loves nature and environment. He can be described as being social(S) as he accepts that though he likes working with people, he wishes to work on his own for the fear of being criticized by others. Finally, he can be said to possess a conventional personality typology (C) as he was always forced to follow in the footsteps of his father, irrespective of whether he liked it or not. He grew up in accordance to his father's will and wish throughout his life right from childhood to adulthood. He had little or no autonomy to take his own decisions in life throughout. This conventional nature of his has taken a toll on his career decision, which is a turning point in one's life. He has failed drastically with making an appropriate career decision at an appropriate stage in life. Apart from this, his personality typology seems to be feminine in nature as his personality has turned out to be artistic, social and conventional (ASC) in nature.

    His personality typology poses a challenge to the career counselor, as he/she has an important task of counseling him in such a manner so as to change his personality typology to a more masculine one, and make an appropriate career choice before it is too late for him to do so.

    b. Ann Roe:
    Ann Roe proposed the Needs theory of career development in 1956. It is mainly based on Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. She emphasizes the influence of early childhood experiences in shaping an individual's career during adulthood. Here, it can be said that Mark wishes to work in a non-person oriented occupation due to the fact that he was bossed around by his father, controlled and criticized by him during his early childhood. Thus, Mark's early relationship with his parents has affected his occupational choice to a great extent. He lacks proper desire to stimulate him to develop a specific occupational choice. The basic needs of Mark were not be satisfied during early childhood, as he was unable to get love and affection, safety, and a sense of belonging from his parents. His father was highly demanding in nature and criticized him when he could not meet all his demands as a child, while his mother seemed to be over-protective. Thus, his childhood experiences further shaped his lifestyle, which was filled with full of confusion and doubts regarding his interests, aptitudes and abilities. His environment did not enable him to develop positive career seeking behaviors, as his psychological needs were not met with during early childhood. The family atmosphere of Mark was basically of Emotional concentration type as his parents were over demanding as well as over protective in nature. But, he failed to voice his feelings and wishes in front of his parents due to the fear of being criticized by his father. Thus, he preferred to take up a non-person oriented occupation during his adult life.

    Standardized interest inventories can be used to assess the interest of Mark based on Roe's two -way occupational classification. Her theory does not have a counseling program. Many other variables other than early childhood experiences also have an important role in shaping career decisions later on in life.

    c. Krumboltz
    According to John Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision making, four categories of factors influence an individual's career decision-making process (L.K. Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1990). Here, Mark though endowed by genetic abilities at birth alike any other child failed to develop upon the same due to an un-conductive environment at home. His genetic traits could not be unfolded to his advantage due to his over demanding and over protective parents. It can be said that his gender had a role to play in shaping the behavior of his father. He wished to see him excel in all aspects, but his over demanding attitude took a toll on his son's personality on the whole. He turned out to grow into a confused, indecisive youth who could not arrive at an appropriate career decision. He was under the complete control of his father, thus found it difficult to have self-control on his professional life later on. The learning experiences that he encountered in life failed to help him to choose a career path. His instrumental experiences could not help him to a great extent to produce a positive response, while his associative learning experiences lead to the development of a negative attitude and belief related to various occupations through a number of external stimuli. Mark failed to fair well with regard to his genetic endowment, environmental conditions, and learning experiences. Thus, he failed to develop the task approach skills which are a resultant of an interaction between the first ...

    Solution Summary

    The solution provides information regarding the description of a client, named Mark, on the basis of various theories of career development along with the respective intervention strategies.