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Dependent vs. independent variables

The present research investigated the effects of counterfactual thinking on subjects' accident related judgments. It was predicted that the availability of counterfactual alternatives for an accident would result in differential evaluation of incident related victims and perpetrators. The results of two studies strongly supported this prediction. Specifically, subjects awarded more financial compensation to the victim of an accident when it was preceded by exceptional rather than routine circumstances. Similarly, under these conditions the accident perpetrators were deemed to be more negligent in their behavior, and a harsher fine was leveled against them.

Questions:

1) What is(are) the Independent Variables and Dependent Variables?
2) What were the levels (conditions) of the independent variables?
3) Which sentence states the hypothesis?

Solution Preview

First, you have to review the definitions of dependent vs. independent variables in an experiment.

Independent variables are those that are manipulated within the experiment in order to measure the dependent variables (variables that cannot be changed or manipulated, only measured).

"In a research study, independent variables are antecedent conditions that are presumed to affect a dependent variable. They are either manipulated by the researcher or are observed by the researcher so that their values can be related to that of the dependent variable. For example, in a research study on the relationship between mosquitoes and mosquito bites, the number of mosquitoes per acre of ground ...

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