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1.Examine the way in which death and dying are viewed at different points in human development

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1. Examine the way in which death and dying are viewed at different points in human development

Death and dying are viewed differently at different points in human development, such s childhood, adolescents and adults. However, even small children perceive the threat of separation and threat to their survival.

1. Preschool and Middle-School Children

According to the Encyclopedia of Psychology (2000), in response to certain events young children will express spontaneous insight into the finality of death, such as experiencing a dead animal or withered plant. In fact, Nagy (1948, as cited in Singh, Singh & Nizamie, 2003) proposed three developmental stages of cognitions related to death in children. Around the age of five, according to Nagy, a child is in stage one and lacks appreciation of death as final and complete cessation, with the theme of separation most clearly comprehended at this age. In stage two, children begin to think of death as final but not inevitable, and have a strong tendency to personify death. At the age of nine or ten, children enter stage three, which is marked by comprehension of death as both final and inevitable. Here the child seems to accept the prospect of personal mortality. However, Singh, Singh and Nizamie (2003) point out "that anecdotal reports suggest that the child's discovery of death begins much earlier than the most cognitive theorists seem prepared to accept" (p.1)

According to Singh, Singh and Nizamie (2003), children's understanding of death and dying is colored by their affective and cognitive development and their related fears about dying. Based on Piaget's cognitive theory, in the preoperational stage of ...

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Examines the way in which death and dying are viewed at different points in human development, including providing extra resources.

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Illness and effects on development. Death and Dying.

Part I

1. Assess the interaction and influences of genetics, heredity, and environmental factors on the prenatal development of individuals with your selected condition.
2. Describe how biological, sensory, perceptual, motor and physical development of the mind and body are affected in individuals with your selected condition.
3. Evaluate the impact of nutrition, eating behavior and overall health on physical development and life expectancy in individuals with your selected condition.

1.Autism in children: According to Ms. Duncan, Charles is the product of a pregnancy which was full-term and which was without any major complications except that labor had to be induced. The delivery was normal and Charles's birth weight was 8 pounds - 11 ounces. The baby remained hospitalized for 3 days following his birth and was considered as being a healthy baby. Charles's developmental landmark was sitting up unsupported, approximately 8 months; crawling, approximately 8 months; walking, 18 months; saying his first simple words approximately 2 or 3 years; speaking in short sentences, approximately 4 or 5 years; and the client was toilet trained at 14 months of age. At 5 1/2 years of age, the client was diagnosed as autistic.

The client exhibited rocking, head banging, repetitive sniffing and hand gestures as a child. At approximately 18 years of age, Ms. Duncan states that the client became aggressive and started taking psychotropic medications. He also started biting and slapping himself and going AWOL. She states that at this time, she sought a voluntary placement for the client. Charles did attend special academic classes throughout his academic career. Charles currently participates in day programming, 5 days per week, at ECF Par West in Culver city, CA. His diagnostic impression is mild mental retardation and autism.

Summary:

Charles is 34 years old. Charles weighs 201 pounds. He was admitted to Mt. Sinai (An Adult Residential Facility in Los Angeles, CA) on October 12, 1995. Charles has been diagnosed with the following medical and/or psychiatric disabilities: Autism, Manic Depression, and Moderate Mental Retardation. Charles has a friendly, sociable manner and he makes good eye contact. He is ambulatory with good balance. He is neat and dresses nicely. Charles is independent with most activities of daily living. He listens politely and contributes information in simple conversations. Charles is verbal; he has fair communication skills and adequate receptive skill. Charles sometimes feels intimidated by higher functioning peers. Charles has a brother who visits him on holidays.

Part II

Families who have lost loved ones to a terminal illness.

a. Describe the critical issues associated with understanding, coping with and facing death. Explain the unique considerations of the issues related to individuals in your selected situation.
b. Analyze the role of socio-historical and cultural influences in determining the attitude, perspective, decisions and personal context regarding death and loss. Describe how these attitudes and perspectives are affected when individuals are confronted with your selected situation.
c. Describe the phases of grieving and factors that influence the individual variations of response to grief, bereavement and mourning as they relate to your selected situation.

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