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Death and Dying: The Grieving Process. Etiology of Autism

Part I

1. Assess the interaction and influences of genetics, heredity, and environmental factors on the prenatal development of individuals with your selected condition.
2. Describe how biological, sensory, perceptual, motor and physical development of the mind and body are affected in individuals with your selected condition.
3. Evaluate the impact of nutrition, eating behavior and overall health on physical development and life expectancy in individuals with your selected condition.

1.Autism in children: According to Ms. Duncan, Charles is the product of a pregnancy which was full-term and which was without any major complications except that labor had to be induced. The delivery was normal and Charles's birth weight was 8 pounds - 11 ounces. The baby remained hospitalized for 3 days following his birth and was considered as being a healthy baby. Charles's developmental landmark was sitting up unsupported, approximately 8 months; crawling, approximately 8 months; walking, 18 months; saying his first simple words approximately 2 or 3 years; speaking in short sentences, approximately 4 or 5 years; and the client was toilet trained at 14 months of age. At 5 1/2 years of age, the client was diagnosed as autistic.

The client exhibited rocking, head banging, repetitive sniffing and hand gestures as a child. At approximately 18 years of age, Ms. Duncan states that the client became aggressive and started taking psychotropic medications. He also started biting and slapping himself and going AWOL. She states that at this time, she sought a voluntary placement for the client. Charles did attend special academic classes throughout his academic career. Charles currently participates in day programming, 5 days per week, at ECF Par West in Culver city, CA. His diagnostic impression is mild mental retardation and autism.

Summary:

Charles is 34 years old. Charles weighs 201 pounds. He was admitted to Mt. Sinai (An Adult Residential Facility in Los Angeles, CA) on October 12, 1995. Charles has been diagnosed with the following medical and/or psychiatric disabilities: Autism, Manic Depression, and Moderate Mental Retardation. Charles has a friendly, sociable manner and he makes good eye contact. He is ambulatory with good balance. He is neat and dresses nicely. Charles is independent with most activities of daily living. He listens politely and contributes information in simple conversations. Charles is verbal; he has fair communication skills and adequate receptive skill. Charles sometimes feels intimidated by higher functioning peers. Charles has a brother who visits him on holidays.

Part II

Families who have lost loved ones to a terminal illness.

a. Describe the critical issues associated with understanding, coping with and facing death. Explain the unique considerations of the issues related to individuals in your selected situation.
b. Analyze the role of socio-historical and cultural influences in determining the attitude, perspective, decisions and personal context regarding death and loss. Describe how these attitudes and perspectives are affected when individuals are confronted with your selected situation.
c. Describe the phases of grieving and factors that influence the individual variations of response to grief, bereavement and mourning as they relate to your selected situation.

Solution Preview

Part I

1. Assess the interaction and influences of genetics, heredity, and environmental factors on the prenatal development of individuals with your selected condition.
This question is basically asking you how genes, heredity, and the environment of the pregnant mother affect the unborn baby who suffers from autism.

Answer:

With autism, boys are affected four times more often than girls. According to research, multiple genetic factors are involved in the development of autism in several chromosomal regions. A single gene can have profound effects on behavior by disrupting normal behavior. The one genetic disorder that has so far been identified is the fragile X syndrome which is a chromosome abnormality. Scientists state that autism is one of the most heritable mental disorders known. In other words, most autistic children are known to have received the gene(s) from their parents. Studies of twins show that identical twins normally both have the genes for autism. As far as the environment, the type of food the mother eats can have an impact on the development of autism as well. This means that if a certain gene makes the unborn baby susceptible to a particular chemical, the mother ingesting that chemical could trigger autism to develop. Also, various environmental pollutants, toxins, viruses and the like have been proposed to be capable of performing an activating role in the autism gene.

2. Describe how biological, sensory, perceptual, motor, and physical development of the mind and body are affected in individuals with your selected condition.

Answer:

Many autistic children tend to be out of touch with their environments, being unaware of where their bodies are. This lack of awareness often leads to accidents such as bumping into objects. Autistic children also tend to have extreme reactions to sensory stimulation, exhibiting either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. Children who are hypertensive find themselves feeling overly stimulated even with minimal amount of stimulation. As a result, they try to block out stimulating inputs such as light, sound and touch ...

Solution Summary

This solution does two things:

1) It assesses the interaction and influences of genetics, heredity, and environmental factors on the prenatal development of individuals with autism, describes how biological, sensory, perceptual, motor and physical development of the mind and body are affected in individuals with autism, and evaluates the impact of nutrition, eating behavior and overall health on physical development and life expectancy in individuals with your selected condition.
2) It describes the critical issues associated with understanding, coping with and facing death and explains the unique considerations of the issues related to individuals who suffer from osteosarcoma, analyzes the role of socio-historical and cultural influences in determining the attitude, perspective, decisions and personal context regarding death and loss, and describes the phases of grieving and factors that influence the individual variations of response to grief, bereavement and mourning as they relate to osteosarcoma.

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