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Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Testing

When is it best to use norm-referenced test? When is it best to use criterion-referenced? How are they different and alike? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

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Criterion-reference tests (CRT) measure the respondent's success by their answers to predefined, absolute standards, or answers. Each individual respondent is measured or compared to a preset standard of acceptable achievement, regardless of how anyone else does on the test. Scores are usually expressed in the form of a percentage of what the students know or are able to do when compared with predefined criterion. CRT's tend to encourage cooperation and minimize competition. Performance assessments are a good example of a CRT test, as are tests based on course objectives. Physical therapists can use CRT's as a way to measure ...

Solution Summary

Variations in testing and measurement are explained.