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Issues in Terrorism

Hello, I need guidance in tackling complicated questions n the topic of terrorism. The questions I need assistance with are listed below. Responses needn't be too formal but comprehensive enough to direct me in the right path.

1. If you were a member of Congress, what types of standards would you propose to measure the effectiveness of the spending that is occurring for homeland security? How would you propose to determine if the spending has raised individual, community, and private sector preparedness for the new terrorist threat?

2. What are the principle functions of the Patriot Act, the Homeland Security Act, and Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5?

3. What issues have been raised concerning some of the authorities granted government agencies in the Patriot Act?

4. What additional statutory authorities and resources do you think emergency managers require in order to function effectively in homeland security?

5. Summary/Discussion - in reference to the answers provided in each narrative above, provide a summary.

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Dear Student,
I took the liberty of creating a very comprehensive solution for you, as usual going above and beyond the word limit just to make sure that I cover the necessary points needed for discussion of the topic in hand. Thank you for trusting me with your academic problem. If you have any questions regarding this solution, please send me a message.

OTA 105878/Xenia Jones

1. Spending for Security

"For each U.S. household, the government spends about $500 per month on war-related budgets. About a third of this is the increase since 9/11. Of the total spending, about 60 percent is the regular Pentagon budget, with the rest split among supplemental appropriations (Iraq and the War on Terror), veterans' benefits, domestic agencies with war-related tasks (especially Homeland Security), and interest on war-related debts."
- Joshua Goldstein, 2004

While government spending measures have always incorporated the allocation of funds to spend in securing the homeland especially against threats of terror and violence, after 9-11 the budget & the measures have been increasingly increased and heightened. 9-11 showed the need for tightened security and in order to fight terrorism & secure the people & the homeland, the US government from the legislative to the executive bodies intensely put together new measures & new stratagem, pouring resources in what became the 'War on Terror', the current global conflict that saw America lead the military resolution to the threat of the Al-Qaeda & radical terrorist groups. America leads the world in military spending. But for the amount to be decided upon, it goes through a budget process; the Congress has 'the Constitutional power of the Purse', approving, re-aligning or redesigning the budget. The Executive body, through the President submits a budget to the Congress annually under the Budget & Accounting Act of 1921. The budget, which can be found in the Office of Management & Budget upon request or through their website contains budget contains detailed information on spending and revenue proposals, along with policy proposals and initiatives with significant budgetary implications. Upon reception in the Congress, the Senate & the House deliberate and counter propose for an agreeable resolution. The Appropriations of actual budget resolution through the committee then pass these as bills through deliberation by both the House & the Senate. When an agreement is reached, this is then passed on to the White House that either the president signs on or vetoes. If the President declines to accept the resolution, then a part of government operations shuts down. This however is avoided by the Congress passing temporary Continuing Resolutions to continue the funding until the new bill is in place and passed as law. The President's proposal for the budget is delivered to the Congress in January of every Fiscal year and a resolution must be reached by mid-April.

A member of Congress therefore has the responsibility & the power to ensure that the proposed spending for military purposes 'raised individual, community, and private sector preparedness for the new terrorist threat'. While it sounds simple, this is a tall order. When budget reaches a member of Congress, together with his aid & researchers, they have to determine the validity of the budget & what their purposes are and if it is enough or lacking. If it is lacking, then they must introduce new ammendations which will be heard when the bill is proposed in the Congressional floor. It must be realistic & measurable but also forward thinking as well as relevant to 'now' and to the future. In measurable it means being able to 'quantify' and at least 'see' the results of the budget in proportion to their purposes. For instance, a Congressman will be able to quantify the budget by seeing improved training in terms of terror alertness in his district, arrival of new equipment, and a more enhanced law enforcement workforce that reinforces new measures and is more in control in terms of law enforcement & gaining new knowledge in relation to keeping his district's security. In approving the budget & amending it, the knowledge of where the money goes equips any legislator with actual knowledge where the monies will be spent and this in torn allows for better measurement & quantification. Take for instance measure in enhancing DNA-identification equipment. If the budget is approved, the Congressman can check if the equipment & training has reached his district and check what the purchasing of new equipment, enactment of new personnel and instigation of new measures has done to minimize & faith crime & the threat of terrorism. The DNA-machines working to support the public, even the private sector benefits as employees and prospective employees can easily be screened to ensure the identity of those in place. With the science behind DNA being fool-proof, it enhances community morale knowing that expert & trained personnel with the latest equipment are working round the clock to ensure identification. Preparedness-wise, equipments like the latest computing systems & mass spectrometers allow for gathering of accurate scientific data. When a terrorist through his/her DNA or through facial recognition systems had been identified through the new equipment made possible by the budget, this allows for measurement of the effectivity of said budget. While it is possible to analyze at a national level the efficiency of military/defence spending, at the end of the day, the ...

Solution Summary

The solution is a comprehensive tutorial narrative tackling specific questions on Terrorism including issues regarding the USA Patriot Act and issues with regards to Homeland Security via a detailed narrative (see problem). The solution is set as a set of 5 structured essays following the APA format, fully referenced with a word version attached for easy printing and digital use.