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Function, design, operation, & principles of semiconductors

The basic function, design, and operation of semiconductor lasers.
How semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and semiconductor lasers are manufactured.
What scientific principles/techniques are important in designing and manufacturing electronic devices, including a brief discussion of why the principles/techniques are important.

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Semiconductor devices are a crucial part of our society. Semiconductors are at the heart of microprocessor chips, transistors, diodes, lasers, and many other electronic parts. This paper will discuss the basic function, design, and operation of semiconductor lasers. The manner in which semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors, and semiconductor lasers are manufactured will also be explained. Finally, there will be a discussion on what scientific principles and techniques are important in designing and manufacturing semiconductor devices.

The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A laser is a device that converts energy into light. For a semiconductor laser this energy is electrical and the laser consists of an amplifier and a resonator. The semiconductor laser works because the semiconductor material is able to conduct electricity between the conductors and insulators.

The amplifier for a semiconductor laser is made from a direct band gap semiconductor material base on InP substrates or gallium arsenide (GaAs). Alloys of these materials are formed onto the substrates as layered structures that contain very precise amounts of other materials.

The resonator is used to continuously recirculate light through the amplifier. The ...

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