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    Critical Thinking, Logical Argument and Fallacies

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    1. How do assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking?

    2. What are the essential components of a logical argument?

    3. What is the meaning of validity, truth, and soundness as they relate to the area of logical syllogisms?

    4. What are the two formal fallacies?

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    https://brainmass.com/philosophy/logic-critical-thinking/critical-thinking-logical-argument-and-fallacies-177517

    Solution Preview

    Hi,

    Let's take a closer look by discussion, definition and example.

    RESPONSE:

    1. How do assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking?

    By definition, assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking. For example, critical thinking consists of three steps:

    1. Becoming aware that assumptions exist
    2. Making assumptions explicit
    3. Assessing their accuracy
    o Do these assumptions make sense?
    o Do these assumptions fit reality as we understand and live it?
    o Under what conditions do these assumptions seem to hold true? Under what conditions do they seem false? (Source: http://www.coping.org/write/percept/critical.htm)

    In other words, our assumptions are therefore a key factor in our critical thinking process because they give us a lot to think critically evaluate. Assumptions are part of our belief system; something we don't question. We often take for granted that our assumptions are true. These assumptions left unchallenged can bias the decision making process. Therefore, in our critical thinking process, we need to take any assumptions we have and question them in order to validate or invalidate them. In other words, we use critical thinking to evaluate our assumptions as to the truth and validity. Otherwise, we draw inferences (e.g. a conclusion) based on our assumptions that we believe to be true. Our inferences (conclusions) then cause you to act accordingly (Source: http://www.achieving-life-abundance.com/assumptions-and-critical-thinking.html).

    In fact, we can bias our problem solving and critical thinking if we continue to proceed in our actions based on invalid assumptions. It is therefore imperative that we do the following:
    · We must always validate and test our assumptions to be sure that our assumptions are based in reality.
    · We must always avoid jumping to assumptions especially if they are negative or illogical.
    · We need to never ignore ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution explains how assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking, the essential components of a logical argument, the meaning of validity, truth, and soundness as they relate to the area of logical syllogisms and the two formal fallacies.

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