The solution tackles theories of emotion & arousal as they relate to human motivation. It is presented in an essay, written in APA style with references to allow students to expand on the information & discussion detailed in the essay. The solution traces the development of Theories on emotion from the late 19th century to that which are prevalent today. A word version of the solution is attached for easy printing.
I decided to give you a more comprehensive solution on theories of emotion instead of focusing on just one so you will understand how they relate to one enother and see how they have developed so far. Good Luck!
Tracing the Development of Theories on Emotion
The James-Lange theory of emotion was formulated separately by scholars & physicians William James and Carl Lange in the later part of the 19th century; often attributed as the earliest proponent on the relation of the emotional to the physical/physiological, the theory was the basis of later studies that has gone to disprove or further its tenets. In a nutshell, the James-Lange theory proposes that the autonomic nervous system responses to the changes in the environment/stimuli physically (rising heart rate, muscular tension, perspiration, etc.) and emotions are the result of these reactions rather than their causes. Lange goes as far as saying that the physical reaction are part of the 'emotion' itself which makes this theory, what with today's state of neural studies & psychological breakthroughs, largely criticized, disfavoured and, to a certain extent disproven. Some proponents to this however argue that the ideas of James & Lange still bear merit to particular cases. Take for example those suffering from Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (i.e. battlefield stress for soldiers), victims of crimes like rape and individuals who have survived harrowing experiences (car accidents, witness to a murder, etc.). Many of these individuals react to the stressful changes in their environment with the guidance of instinct physically. Duck when a grenade is thrown at you, fight to the death when your life is threatened (soldiers) via the red mist reaction; on the other hand many victims of rape & violent crime often disassociate their body from an emotional response during the act of ...
A comprehensive solution tracing the history of the theories of emotion and further explaining the concept by relating it to human motivation. Written in APA format, referenced for expansion.