Suppose instead of working on the Euclidean plane we study geometry on a sphere in (Euclidean) three space. We interpret point to mean any point on the sphere and we interpret line to mean any great circle on the sphere (that is any circumference of the sphere).
a. Is EuclidÃ¢??s parallel postulate true in this setting?
b. How would you define the angle which two great circles make at a point where they
intersect on the sphere?
c. How would you define a triangle on the sphere? Give some examples.
d. Is the sum of the angles in a triangle greater than, less than, or equal to 180 degrees in this setting?
e. Does the angle sum depend on the area of the triangle? How?
f. How does part d relate to showing that the parallel postulate implies the triangle postulate?

Solution Preview

a. No. Any two great circles on the sphere intersect, so there are no parallel "lines" in this context.

b. The angle which two great circles make at an intersection point on the sphere is define as the angle which the tangent lines to each great circle make at that point.

c. A triangle on a sphere is any region bounded by three ...

Solution Summary

We answer several questions pertaining to the geometry of a sphere and how it differs from Euclidean geometry (on a plane).

A. Discuss differences between neutral geometry and Euclidean geometry.
B. Explain the importance of Euclid's parallel postulate and how this was important to the development of hyperbolic and spherical geometries.

1. Construct a model of incidence geometry that has neither the elliptic hyperbolic nor Euclidean parallel properties.
2. Consider a finite geometry where the points are interpreted to be the six vertices of a regular octedron and the lines are sets of exactly two points.
see attached

Task:
A. Discuss differences between neutral geometry and Euclidean geometry.
B. Explain the importance of Euclid's parallel postulate and how this was important to the development of hyperbolic and spherical geometries.
Note: Euclid's parallel postulate states the following: "For every line l and for every external

Please see the attached file for full problem description.
1.Let u=(1,-1,3) and v=(2,-1,-1) be vectors in Euclidean 3-space R^3. Find a vector orthogonal to the plane of (subspace spanned by) the vectors u and v. Show work.
Help: R^3: is Euclidean 3-space

6. Find the area of the following figure (see attached), give that a = 2, b =7 and h = 5.
14. Find the area and perimeter of the following figure (see attached).
24. Find the volume and surface area of the following rectangular box (see attached).
31. Find the volume of the following figure (see attached).
47. On

Prove that in a Euclidean ring ( a , b ) can be found as follows
b = q0 a + r1 where d ( r1) < d (a )
a = q1 r1 + r2 where d ( r2) < d (r1 )
r1 = q1 r1 + r2 where d ( r3) < d ( r2 )

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem.
1. Write the vector equation of the line in R^3 which passes through the two points P: (1,-1,3) and Q: (2,-1,-1). Show work.
Help:
R^3: is Euclidean 3-space

Euclidean Geometry (II)
Computing the Volume of a regular tetrahedron of edge length 1
Explain how to compute the volume of a regular tetrahedron of edge length 1.

Let R be a Euclidean domain such that delta (a + b) is less than or equal to max{ delta (a), delta (b)} for all non zero a, b in R. Prove that q and r in the definition of Euclidean domain are unique.