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    THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY

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    I seriously need help with homework assignments. Please be detail with answer the questions. Its must be at least six to ten sentence or paragraph for questions so I can understand. Answer the questions using the textbook listed below.

    PART 5 Robert Ezra Park: 1864-1944
    PART 6 William Herbert Sheldon: 1898-1977
    1.Explain the concept of "anomie," from the work of Robert Merton. According to Merton, what role did anomie play in crime?
    2.Describe the key aspects of the American Dream according to Messner and Rosenfeld. Second, why/how does the American Dream promote crime?
    3.Identify and describe each of the five techniques of neutralization. Also, give two examples of each technique. What role do the techniques play in criminal behavior, according to Sykes and Matza?

    PART 7 Edwin Hardin Sutherland: 1883-1950
    PART 8 Walter cade Reckless: 1899-1988
    PART 9 Robert King Merton: 1910-2003
    PART 10 Albert Kircidel Cohen: B. 1918
    What is restorative justice? Why/how is it compatible with Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming? Why/how is it compatible with Sherman's defiance theory?
    2.What is the solution to reducing crime, according to Bonger's work? How does this solution compare with the crime reduction strategies implied by Currie's "market society" theory?

    PART 11 Lloyd E Ohlin: B. 1918 with Comments on Richards Cloward
    PART 12 Gresham M'Cready Sykes: B 1922
    PART 13 Erving Goffman: 1922-1982
    1.Rational choice theories argue for a crime specific focus. Explain how Wright and Decker's study of armed robbers provided a crime-specific analysis. For example, how to do robbers decide to commit a robbery, how to select a target, what decisions do they make when actually committing the crime? How would these decisions different from other types of criminal behavior.
    2.Explain routine activity theory. How did Cohen and Felson use the theory to explain increased crime in the United States post-World War II?

    1. Describe the different ways in which individual traits and environmental factors interact (or influence) one another to produce persistent antisocial behavior, according to Moffitt's theory.
    2.Describe the different ways in which individual traits and environmental factors interact (or influence) one another to produce persistent antisocial behavior, according to Moffitt's theory.

    PART 14 Howard Saul Beckers: B. 1982
    PART15 Earl Richard Quinney: B. 1934
    1. Describe the racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Why is their disparity in the CJS?
    2.Clearly explain the role of the street code and its relationship to crime according to Anderson.

    1.Agnew groups the variables that have relatively large, direct effects on crime into five life domains. Briefly describe those life domains. Select any two of those five domains and describe how they index or affect constraints against or motivations for crime.

    PART 16 Travis Hirschi: B. 1935
    1.What are theories? What is good theory?
    2.Select five theories and do the following: classify, evaluate and discuss each policy implications.
    3.Thoroughly discuss at least five reasons why the "get tough" approach is a questionable policy.

    Textbook:
    Criminological Thought: Pioneers Past and Present
    Author: Robert J. Mutchnick, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
    Randy Martin
    W. Timothy Austin
    ISBN-10:0131190466
    ISBN-13: 9780131190467
    Publisher: Prentice Hall Copyright: 2009

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    https://brainmass.com/law/private-law-theory/theory-philosophy-616619

    Solution Preview

    1.Explain the concept of "anomie," from the work of Robert Merton. According to Merton, what role did anomie play in crime?

    The concept of anomie is predicated upon the belief that groups adopt abnormal concepts of morality to justify their actions when barred from the mainstream. Quintessentially anomie is predicated upon the view that a lack of adoption of cultural norms is a result of the strain placed upon people who are barred from access to the American dream. Therefore, those who are barred adopt their own approaches toward dealing with this strain either through conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. In this regard, the person who conforms with the traditional norms of society, which in America are predicated upon acquiring wealth and material gain through education and hard work will turn to other means if they are barred from obtaining the wealth that is celebrated in American society. Innovative people will begin to sell drugs, commit robberies, or engage in other illicit forms of criminal behavior to ensure that their piece of the "American Dream" in society is secured. Those who engage in ritualism will only go through the motions to give the appearance of wanting to attain this dream wherein they attend college, get a job or career, but don't really want any of these goals or objectives. They simply conform to the idea of the American Dream and engage in the rituals that are necessary for obtaining the "American Dream", which typically include college and obtaining a career. Those who choose to retreat from the dream will actually retreat from society and become anti-social, which could lead to a higher propensity to become rebellious. Rebellions are those who form anti-society groups or anti-corporate groups such as Occupy Wall Street or more radical groups such as the Black Liberation Front or the anti-government groups in Oregon who are occupying state property.

    2.Describe the key aspects of the American Dream according to Messner and Rosenfeld. Second, why/how does the American Dream promote crime?

    The key aspects of the American Dream are that America is a society that believes in equal opportunity, and because of the Capitalistic economy that espouses individual competition wherein the greater the effort a person puts forth, the more acquisition of wealth and materialism they can obtain. Therefore, the American Dream is just that, a farcical dream that isn't steeped in reality as many people are barred from attaining wealth in America because of racism, classicism, and other forms of social and economic discrimination that prevent a large portion of America from attaining the wealth and success afforded to those who don't face these structural obstacles. Therefore, when obstacles that are insurmountable and strategically placed are present, Americans barred from the legal channels of obtaining the American Dream will resort to illegal methods as these Americans still want the wealth and material gain associated with the American Dream. This is why America has such a high rate of crime in comparison to other countries such as those in Europe and other similarly wealthy Western nations.

    3.Identify and describe each of the five techniques of neutralization. Also, give two examples of each technique. What role do the techniques play in criminal behavior, according to Sykes and Matza?
    The five techniques of neutralization include denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victims, appeal to higher loyalties, and condemnation of condemners. When someone denies any responsibility for a crime, they are essentially appropriating blame elsewhere. Therefore, if someone commits a murder and blames the victim, their upbringing, or other factors, this person is denying their own personal responsibility for the crime. Two examples would be Ted Bundy, the infamous serial killer who denied responsibility for his crimes and blamed television, society, his mother, etc. for his sadistic actions. Another example would be the Nightstalker, Richard Ramirez, who simply didn't accept responsibility for his actions but rather stated that his victims deserved it as he was the grim reaper. Denial of injury occurs when an offender attempts to limit or deny the extent of damage or injury to their victims. This is often common in crimes wherein the victim may be psychologically hurt but not physically harmed. An example would be a bank robber who points a gun at clerk's head while threatening to kill them if they don't give the money, but once they receive the money, leaves the premises. The bank robber will often cite how no victims were hurt, but psychologically, the victim will suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress disorder as a result of this act and never work at a bank again. In addition, rapists often ten to deny injury by using the defense that the victim wanted the sex and they didn't hurt the victim during the alleged consensual act in their minds.

    Denial of victims often occur when the victim is viewed as non-worthy by the perpetrator. This is often the case for serial killers who target prostitutes and for drug dealers who are killed by rival dealers. Because the victim is viewed as a criminal, the offender as well as some segments of society will deny their status as a victim by stating that their lifestyles were the reason that they became a victim of crime, and therefore, they don't earn victim status such as those who don't lead criminal lifestyles. An appeal to higher loyalties is common for those who don't view authorities as possessing any right to enforce laws against them. Groups such as domestic white terrorist groups often espouse this rhetoric wherein these groups claim that the federal government is the criminal element, and because of their appeal to God as God's chosen children, they must fight against the tyranny of the federal government. These groups will blow up abortion centers, rob federal banks, and generally disobey the law up to the extent of killing police officers under the tutelage that they have the authority to do so under God. These groups also condemn the condemners wherein they place the tag of criminality on those who are attempting to criminalize them. The worst domestic terrorist incident in U.S. history was justified by this logic wherein the Oklahoma City bomber believed that the building and those working in the ...

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    The expert examines theory and philosophy.

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