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Constitution of Medina

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After Hazrat Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now called Medina) in 622 AD (hijrah), he established the first Islamic state there. For 10 years he was the leader of the emerging Muslim ummah (Muslim community) in Arabia and also the political head of Medina.
As the leader of Medina, Prophet Muhammad exercised jurisdiction over Muslims as well as non-Muslims within the city. The legitimacy of his rule over Medina was based on his status as the Prophet of Islam as well as on the basis of the compact of Medina (known as Dustur-al-Madina) and also referred to as the Constitution of Medina. He ruled as political head as a result of the tripartite pact (the Constitution of Medina) between the Muslim immigrants from ...

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