What were the major divisions within the body of Roman citizens between 133 and 31 BC?
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1. What were the major divisions within the body of Roman citizens between 133 and 31 BC?
From 133 to 27 B.C., the Roman Republic was engaged in a constant succession of civil wars, making up what has come to be known as the Roman Revolution. In fact, in this historical period, we see the "fall of the Roman Empire."
By 133 B.C., Roman politics had polarized around two factions in the Senate.
1. "Optimates," the better people - aristoi, people whose only interest lay with wealth and the senatorial class. Numerically small but politically powerful, the Optimates were by all accounts conservative - they were the defenders of the good old days, defenders of the status quo.
2. "Populares," the champions of the depressed portion of the citizenry. The Populares demanded the redistribution of the land to the dispossessed peasants who now flooded into Rome as well as a reform of the voting procedure. (1)
The acquisition of empire did have some disturbing effects on the social order (e.g., major divisions within the body of Roman citizens, soldier unrest, etc.) and administrative structure of the Republic. The Punic and Macedonian Wars of the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C. had kept Roman soldiers away from Rome for years at a time. Many of these soldiers developed a greater loyalty to the land they were serving than they ...
This solution discusses the major divisions within the body of Roman citizens between 133 and 31 BC. References are provided.