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19th century changes

1. According to Merriam Webster, anarchy and anarchists are against governments and ruling powers. In our text by Rapport, the term anarchist movement refers to the period of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century when people were forming groups and unions to rebel against deplorable work conditions and restrictions. The anarchists, as Rapport refers to, were involved in the most heinous of the movements wherein people were killed either through assassinations or bombings. Contrarily to the dictionary definition, the European anarchists during this time period were not searching for a society without order. In fact, they were desperately looking for a society that simply did not oppress those who were seen as the very life blood and backbone of the industrial revolution. Their involvement brought forth change in a dramatic way that previous movements had failed to bring forth by gaining government recognition and influence over management (Rapport, 277). Additionally, many of the world's unions today owe thanks to some of the achievements brought forth by the actions of these anarchists. Despite their harsh approach to unhealthy work conditions, were their tactics warranted?
2. Throughout the 19th century women were constantly being suppressed and were denied rights the male citizens held. For most of Europe throughout this time you had to be a land owning male citizen to vote or take a role in politics. This was occurring even though there had been a queen in Spain and Britain during this period and prior in history. Women played more of a role in activism throughout these times from being involved in protest to even rioting and contributing to the overthrow of King Louis during the French revolution. Women were just not treated as equals during the time period. "Gender inequalities reflected the social attitudes of the time, particularly the doctrine of 'separate spheres' and 'the sexual double standard'' (Rapport pg. 272). This double standard would start to change in the late 1800's and early 1900's and was dubbed Feminism and Women's Emancipation. In what ways did things change for women during this time period?
3. The nineteenth century was an age of imperialism, an age in which European nations expanded a great deal of energy and money expanding their empires. No country wanted to grant supremacy to the other. When one country was establishing colonies overseas the others were developing their colonies.Europeans believed they were the superior race and felt it was their responsibility to impose their culture on people they regarded as uncivilized or inferior. In the late nineteenth century there was a great deal of importance on public opinion, this according to Rapport, chapter seventeen.It was during this time the Social Darwin ideas appeared, suggesting the fierce competition between people and races. Popular versions of Darwinism on nationalism and race circulated widely throughout Europe before the great imperialist explosion.Books were written about international competition and its struggle was going to lead to death between the races. British versions of Darwinism preached that feeble races were being wiped off the earth and the few great species would arm themselves against one another, Rapport, (p 342).
Why was Britain considered the ultimate superior of the European race?

4. As the text points out, suffrage campaigns were unsuccessful in most countries before 1914. Norwegian women gained the right to vote in 1913, British women in 1928, it was not till 1944 that French woman attained suffrage, the Italians in 1946 (Wikipedia, 2015). Nevertheless, during the late 1800s the "the mobilization of women around other issues drew hundreds of thousands of women into political activity" (p.275). In recent class I took, I wrote a major research paper on Josephine Butler who is mentioned in the text in regards to her fight against the Contagious Diseases Acts (p.275). I was impressed from what I learned, by how many of these leading women across Europe and even the U.S. knew one another, corresponded regularly, and drew strength and wisdom from one another's experiences. Certainly they also learned from the newly evolving methods of social protest which were developing in other sectors of society. For example Emmeline Pankherst who was one of Britain's leading suffragist campaigners, traveled all over Europe and America and had massive influence on women suffragettes the world over. Josephine Butler herself was very much involved not only in the fight for women's suffrage, but also women's education and the ability to study at the universities. Her primary campaign against the Contagious Diseases Acts was a battle to which she devoted the majority of her life and in which she developed political strategies that would later be used by suffragettes both in Europe and America. It was inspiring how much could be accomplished when women networked and learned from one another despite the many schisms and splits that occurred between the different movements and groups. This was usually over disagreements in priorities, methods and tactics.
However, as the text also points out: the prevailing attitudes which conspired against giving women the right to vote, were also shared by many European women themselves (p.274). What do you see as the primary reason for this?

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According to Merriam Webster, anarchy and anarchists are against governments and ruling powers. In our text by Rapport, the term anarchist movement refers to the period of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century when people were forming groups and unions to rebel against deplorable work conditions and restrictions. The anarchists, as Rapport refers to, were involved in the most heinous of the movements wherein people were killed either through assassinations or bombings. Contrarily to the dictionary definition, the European anarchists during this time period were not searching for a society without order. In fact, they were desperately looking for a society that simply did not oppress those who were seen as the very life blood and backbone of the industrial revolution. Their involvement brought forth change in a dramatic way that previous movements had failed to bring forth by gaining government recognition and influence over management (Rapport, 277). Additionally, many of the world's unions today owe thanks to some of the achievements brought forth by the actions of these anarchists. Despite their harsh approach to unhealthy work conditions, were their tactics warranted?

Yes, anytime the marginalized and disenfranchised lack power, they must take alternative measures to ensure that they are heard. Prior to the anarchists' engaging in the controlled mayhem, they most certainly attempted to initiate change through diplomatic means, pleas for change, and other nonviolent measures. These pleas and attempts were obviously rebuffed by those in power, and this is because those in power don't respect or care about the opinions of those who don't have any power. Therefore, the anarchists' plea for improvement to their working and living conditions were ignored, which necessitated a more aggressive approach by the anarchists to ensure that they were heard. Once the anarchists' engaged in bombings, violence, etc., they were given some concessions that they deserved. If not for their tactics, they would have never been listened to by those in power who had abused and mistreated them for centuries as this was the social order of the time, which had to be eliminated through anarchy.

Throughout the 19th century women were constantly being suppressed and were denied rights the male citizens held. For ...

Solution Summary

19th century changes are analyzed. Why Britain was considered the ultimate superior of the European race is given.

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