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The Spartan Civilization

1) In what ways was Sparta different from Athens?
2) What advatages did sparta offer to it's citizens?
3) How the geograpy of Laconia and the Peloponnesus affected Sparta's expansion?
4) How exactly did the Spartans organize the Hoplites and Phalanxes.

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In my book on Western Civilization they only give a small portion of information on Sparta and they focus mainly on Athens. I also watched the movie Troy with Brad Pitt last night and was not quite sure what exactly is true.

In what ways was Sparta different from Athens? I know that the ground troups and military with strong.

What advantages did Sparta offer to it's citizens? My book says that 'Sparta elite women had more sexual freedom than other Greeks.

This I don't get, on how the geography of Laconia and the Peloponnesus affected Sparta's expansion, unless they are talking about mountains.

How exactly did the Spartans organize the Hoplites and Phalanxes. I think Hoplites where warriors and Phalanxes was the army.

In what ways was Sparta different from Athens?

The following table is from :
http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/educational/lesson1.html

ATHENS SPARTA
Population Approximately 140,000; Approximately 40,000 men were citizens; and slaves (about 40,000). By 432 BC, Athens had become the most populous city-state in Hellas. In Athens and Attica, there were at least 150,000 Athenians, around 50,000 aliens, and more than 100,000 slaves. Approximately 8,000 Spartiates (adult male citizens) ruled over a population of 100,000 enslaved and semi-enslaved people.
Government & Political organizations Athenian Government
Usually classified as a "direct democracy" (because everyone, not just politicians attended the Assembly), Athens claims to be the "birthplace of democracy".
Elected officials including 10 generals (strategos), magistrates (archons), and others.
Council of 500 was charged with administering decisions made by the Assembly.
The Assembly open to all citizens (all citizens were eligible to attend such meetings and speak up). They passed laws and made policy decisions. The Assembly met on the Hill of the Pnyx at the foot of the Acropolis.
During time of Pericles citizens were paid for jury service so not only the wealthy could participate.
Women did not participate in the political life of Athens. Spartan Government: Usually classified as an "oligarchy" (rule by a few), but it had elements of monarchy (rule by kings), democracy (through the election of council/senators), and aristocracy (rule by the upper class or land owning class).
Two kings who were generals in command of the armies and with some religious duties.
Five overseers (ephors) elected annually ran the day-to-day operations of Sparta. They could veto rulings made by the council or assembly.
Council or Senate (apella) of 28 councilmen (men over 60 and elected for life by the citizens) and the 2 kings. They acted as judges and proposed laws to the citizens' assembly.
The Assembly of all Spartan males aged 30 or over could support or veto the council's recommendations by shouting out their votes.
Women did not participate in the political life of Sparta.
Social Structure Social Structure of Athens: Freemen were all male citizens: divided into numerous classes: at the top were aristocrats who had large estates and made up the cavalry or captained triremes; middle ranks were small farmers; lowest class was the thetes (urban craftsmen and trireme rowers). Metics - those who came from outside the city; they were not allowed to own land, but could run industries and businesses. Slaves were lowest class, but less harshly treated than in most other Greek cities. Slaves had no rights, and an owner could kill a slave. Slaves varied in status: some were given important roles in Athens, like policemen. Women were rarely seen outside the home and had no rights in the Athenian democracy. Social Structure of Sparta:
Three classes: Spartiates (military professionals who lived mostly in barracks and whose land was farmed by serfs; they served in the army and could vote).
Perioeci or "neighbors/outsiders" who were freemen; they included artisans, craftsmen, merchants; they could not vote or serve in the army; foreigners could be in this class.
Helots (serfs descended from those peoples who had resisted subjugation by Sparta and who were constantly rebelling. They were treated like slaves and gave 1/2 of their produce to the Spartiate citizens who owned the land.
Women had few rights, but were more independent in Sparta than elsewhere in Greece.
Allies Delian League (with Athens clearly the most powerful); Athens taxed and protected other city-states. a Peloponnesian League (with Sparta clearly the most powerful).
Military strength Strong navy. Strong army, best and most feared fighters on land.
Life style and values Democratic values for citizens. They believed in participation in government as a civic responsibility. Athenians believed in their cultural superiority and in their role in an empire and benefiting from trade. "Further, we provide ...

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