Please help. I need assistance in completing the following paper:
Prepare a 1050-1400-word paper exploring a topic from one of the following themes as they relate to the Ancient Cultures thru early Greek and Roman times as described in the course readings: the purpose of human life, free will and destiny, suffering, striving for perfection, gender roles, religious expression, love, sex, understanding of wealth, or work. Determine how the theme is reflected in the cultural and world developments from each time period. The paper must compare and contrast the development of the theme within each of the historical periods listed while relating past attitudes to modern ones.
To cover all the aspects and concepts of Graeco-Roman philosophy as outöined above will require a very extensive essay-paper that we cannot cover since we are limited by your word count. 1400 words isnt much to explain the subject matter. It will only allow us to touch each topic briefly and provide a discussion that would show to your tutor/professor that you understand the historical/philosophical aspects of thinking in antiquity, particularly relating aspects of period though to historical/cultural events and personalities. as it is, what you have below is a 2 part paper - part one extensively discussing graeco-Roman Philosophy on the general as dictated by your question. Part 2 takes an aspect, the idea of perfection, showing how it relates to event and philosophical thought, specifically how it is expressed. In philosophy & the social sciences, it is an important skill to narrow down subject matter and discussions as we are always limited by our word count and the time alloted us to do research. Dont worry, your professor will appreciate the general discussion and the focus, extensive focus on an aspect. Use this solution as best you would. This is written in the APA format. Attached is the word version of this solution - it is print ready. another attachment is a sample of a Roman Philosophical Discourse, that of Epictetus on God & Free Will. I figured it is quite easy to get access to Greek passages wile Roman passages on specific topics require a bit more time to seek. Thank you for using brainmass. I hope this solution will provide you guidance.
The Greek & Roman Philosophy: A discussion
From Pythagoras to Socrates to Epicurus, from Aristotle to Cicero and Varo, the traditions of the Hellenic way of thinking, of philosophy - that critical manner of observation and thinking to explain the world, life and experience, human nature & thought itself - deeply grounded that of the Roman Empire that flourished under the military organizations of the generals and the republic under the Caesars. As Athens came to ruin its thinkers found their way to Rome, some as slaves others as tutors of the nobles. If one will recall back to the time of Alexander the Great, the manner of thinking learned by the young Conqueror follows the thought of Socrates through his student Plato who then taught Aristotle who became Alexander's tutor. There are varied players, personalities and thinkers that shaped the thought of Antiquity, of the Ancient World. We reckon back to the time of the Greeks because history teaches that the idea of modernity, free will and the foundations of scientific thought surfaced at this time. With the political & social upheaval of the Persian & Peloponnesian Wars, Athenians came to realize that human destiny is not dictated by the Divine, "the actions of men and women determine their own destiny, and not 'Moira' (Kreis, Steven, 2000)"Academies' - paradigms of thought in a teacher-students setting surfaced where groups of men came together to debate, to discuss and to share ideas and thought exploring varied areas from Math (Pythagoras), Medicine (Hippocrates), History (Thucydides), philosophy & political thought (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Xenophon) and theatre (Euripides, Sophocles).
The Roman 'academe', critical thought and philosophy, even theatre finds its roots in the Greek tradition as Athenian & Greek libraries were emptied of their content to find their way to the rooms of the Roman scholars. As it was, democracy, the republic and questions of how life should be lived and how society should be ordered were questions that plagued even the most tyrannical of Roman Senators, Politicians and military men. Ordinary Romans like the Greeks also had their Pantheon of Gods, directly borrowed from that of the Roman tradition, endowed with new names and powers. Life in civilized Rome is as though as it was for the Greeks despite the power of the Roman military & the Empire. A direct line to the Gods can be found by praying in their temples to ask for intercession in behalf of the pious subject. Hence, even politicians in ancient Greece and Rome never really let go of religion as it provided a means of social control despite the critical thinking provided by philosophy and the emerging scientific, that is, structured thought. Sex for both the Greeks & the Romans are earthly desires that are connected to the social structure. Women, while important are seen as homemakers and procreators, progenitors of the next generation. Women in powerful families, while influential are just in the background, their marriages arranged to cement political ties. The oldest profession on earth, prostitution was prevalent in Ancient Greece and Rome with sexual desires an understood attribute in the part of men, especially soldiers. Family life in both civilizations consisted of a father, mother, their children surrounded by their clan although it is perfectly understandable if women decided to go into prostitution to support her ...