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Early Civilizations

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What forces contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilizations?
What social issues arose because of this cultural makeup?
What were the main cultural influences on early civilizations?
Do you believe that revisionist history is a good thing or a bad thing? Explain your response.

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Dear Student,
Hi. There are many way by which the questions you posted could be answered. We can focus on widely available historiographical knowledge or on the specific ideas of a historian like Arnold Toynbee. This solution takes information from available sources and it should get you started. May I advise reviewing your current materials to include course-specific ideas in your answer as well? If you have any questions, just let me know and I'll try my best to help you further. Good luck with your studies.

OTA 105878/Xenia Jones

Questions about early Civilization

What forces contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilizations?

According to Arnold Toynbee, early civilizations were the result of what he deems as 'primitive societies' (primitive social groups with a sense of shared concerns and traditions) not particularly due to the drive of racial or environmental forces but because they needed to congeal together to respond to and overcome challenges. For this reason, early civilizations are self-determining. Toynbee believes that the challenge must be just right - not too much that it crushes the new civilization, not so small that it will lead to disinterest and stagnation. It is in working together to overcome these challenge that a wider cultural identity is created, one shared by the members of said civilization (i.e. the early Olmec Civilization was formed to overcome the challenge of warring tribes and the need for territory and order). As such early civilizations' cultural identities were impacted by the following: means of subsistence, types of livelihood, settlement patterns, ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides insight and advise that tackles the 4 problems set in the original task (see above) in relation to early civilizations. References are listed for further exploration of the topic.