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Middle Childhood Development

I need help with the following:

1. Discuss the role of brain maturation in motor and cognitive development during middle childhood.

2. Describe the symptoms and possible causes of ADD and AD/HD and types of treatment available for children with ADD and AD/HD.

3. Explain how achievement and aptitude tests are used in evaluating individual differences in cognitive growth, and discuss why use of such tests is controversial.

4. Describe normal physical growth and development during middle childhood, and account for the usual variations among children.

Solution Preview

Hi,

Interesting questions! Let's look at questions 1,2 and 4.

RESPONSE:

1. Discuss the role of brain maturation in motor and cognitive development during middle childhood.

Due to brain maturation, middle childhood marks the beginning of concrete operational thinking (Piaget), occurring at around age 7, in which fantasy or "make-believe" type of thinking gives way to logical thinking and the ability to understand cause-and-effect relationships. Children may occasionally revert to pre-logical thinking patterns under stressful situations, which is normal and results from a healthy, active imagination. (Middle Childhood Development: Cognitive Development).

As the brain matures, so does a child's cognitive skills and attention span continue to expand throughout middle childhood. By age 5 or 6, most for example, children are able to recall parts of a story, speak sentences consisting of more than five words, use the future tense, tell longer stories and recite their address correctly. Other developmental milestones typically achieved by this time include the ability to count 10 or more objects and correctly name at least four colors in addition to having a better understanding of the concept of linear time. Children this age also know about items used in the home every day, including money, food and electric appliances. As children start school, brain maturation allows formal academic learning. The first two years of elementary or primary school are structured for acquiring the fundamentals including reading, writing and basic mathematics skills. Most children learn to read by age 6 or 7. However, some children may learn as early as age 4 or 5. They can also perform simple math equations such as addition and subtraction (Middle Childhood Development: Cognitive Development).

According to Piaget and other developmentalists, as the brain matures, the cognitive abilities of the child change qualitatively. During the elementary school years, children build upon the basic skills they have acquired. By the third or fourth grade, for example, the goal of reading a paragraph is no longer to decipher the words, but also to understand the content. The goal of writing is not just to demonstrate correct spelling and good penmanship, but also to be able to compose a ...

Solution Summary

During Middle Childhood, this solution discusses the role of brain maturation in motor and cognitive development. It describes the symptoms and possible causes of ADD and AD/HD and types of treatment available for children with ADD and AD/HD. It also explains how achievement and aptitude tests are used in evaluating individual differences in cognitive growth, and discusses why use of such tests is controversial. Finally, this solution describes normal physical growth and development during middle childhood, and account for the usual variations among children. References in APA format.

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