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Compare and contrast the nursing theorists, Parse and Watson, include similarities, dissimilarities (totality vs simultaneity, paradigms), schematic model aspects of the theories, and name other theories that are philosophically related.

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Let's take a closer look. I also added some extra information and links at the end of this response for other considerations.


1. Compare and contrast the nursing theorist Parse and Watson, include similarities, dissimilarities (totality vs simultaneity paradigms).

Rosemarie Rizzo Parse proposed the Human Becoming Theory. Like Watson's self care theory the Parse theory of human becoming guides nurses in their practice. However, Parse's focus is on quality of life as it is described and lived (Karen & Melnechenko, 1995, as cited in http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html). The human becoming theory of nursing presents an alternative to both the conventional bio-medical approach and the bio-psycho-social-spiritual (but still normative) approach of most other theories of nursing. The human becoming theory posits quality of life from each person's own perspective as the goal of nursing practice. (ICPS, as cited in) http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html)

The theory is structured around three abiding principles: (a) meaning (man's reality is given meaning through lived experiences; Man and environment cocreate), (b) rhythmicity (man and environment cocreate (imaging, valuing, languaging) in rhythmical patterns), and (c) co-transcendence (refers to reaching out and beyond the limits that a person sets; one constantly transforms) (http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html)

Similarly, Watson refers to self-actualization, which is a form a transformation.

Parson's Human Becoming Theory includes Totality Paradigm - man is a combination of biological, psychological, sociological and spiritual factors; the Simultaneity Paradigm -man is a unitary being in continuous, mutual interaction with environmental; and Originally Man-Living-Health Theory (http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html)

Whereas, Watson's theory recognizes biophysical needs, she focuses mostly on psychological needs of caring; however it embraces the Simultaneity Paradigm meaning a human is a unitary being in continuous, mutual interaction with environmental (http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html)

Nursing Paradigms include ideas about four areas which both theories include but with slightly different focuses.
According to Parse's Theory:

? Person
o Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts
? Environment
o Everything in the person and his experiences
o Inseparable, complimentary to and evolving with
? Health
o Open process of being and becoming. Involves synthesis of values
? Nursing
o A human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve people (http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html)

Watson's theory is somewhat different:

1. Person
? She adopts a view of the human being as: "..... a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. He, human is viewed as greater than and different from, the sum of his or her parts".

2. Health
? Watson believes that there are other factors that are needed to be included in the WHO definition of health. She adds the following three elements:
? A high level of overall physical, mental and social functioning
? A general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning
? The absence of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence)

3. Environment/society
? According to Watson caring (and nursing) has existed in every society. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.

4. Nursing
? According to Watson "nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health".
? It focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease. She believes that holistic health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing.
? She defines nursing as.....
"A human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic and ethical human transactions". (http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html)

Symbols of Parson's Human Becoming Theory include:
? Black and white = opposite paradox significant to ontology of human becoming and green is hope
? Center joined =co created mutual human universe process at the ontological level & nurse-person process
? Green and black swirls intertwining = human-universe co creation as an ongoing process of becoming http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html

Other Information on Watson's theory (excerpt):

Watson's theory

The foundation of Jean Watson's theory of nursing was published in 1979 in nursing: "The philosophy and science of caring" In 1988, her theory was published in "nursing: human science and human care". Watson ARGUES that the main focus in nursing is on carative factors and believes that for nurses to develop humanistic philosophies and value system, a strong ...

Solution Summary

Parse and Watson are compared. References are also provided to justify the assertions.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Qualitative biology questions: different kinds of research methods in anthropology, qualitative and quantitative research, philosophy

See attached file for full problem description.

1. The research question "What is the meaning of the lived experience?" is used in:
A. Ethnography
B. Phenomenology

2. Data collection for phenomenological research is done through:
A. Questionnaires
B. Interviews and observation methods

3. A process whereby data are analyzed by comparing data with other data as they are acquired during research is called constant comparative analysis. This method is used in:
A. Grounded theory research
B. Historical research

4. The qualitative approach that considers an idea or issue from all perspectives through an extensive exploration of the literature is called:
A. Philosophical inquiry
B. Quantitative analysis

5. The approach of understanding the 'natives' view of their world as an outsider is called:
A. Emic
B. Etic

6. Parse and Watson used what type of method for their qualitative analysis?
A. Ethnography
B. Phenomenology

7. The outcome of grounded theory method is to arrive at theory.
A. True
B. False

8. Which research method compiles data and facts regarding people, events and occurrences of the past?
A. Historical
B. Ethnographic

9. People who have special knowledge about a culture and are willing to share with an ethnographer are called:
A. Informants
B. Participant/observers

10. The process of identifying meaning of human experiences through intensive discussion with persons who are living the experience is called:
A. Case study research
B. Phenomenological research

11. Phenomenological research may investigation "being in time."
A. True B. False

12. Quantitative research uses
A. Inductive reasoning
B. Deductive reasoning

13. Qualitative research uses
A. Inductive reasoning
B. Deductive reasoning

14. A typical number of participants in a qualitative study is:
A. Large
B. Small

15. Which method of research focuses on descriptions of cultural groups?
A. Ethnography
B. Case study

16. An investigation of a phenomenon by a few participants to discover meaning is called:
A. Phenomenology
B. Philosophical Inquiry

17. Phenomenology has its philosophical basis in:
A. Science
B. Philosophy

18. Ethnography has its foundation in:
A. History
B. Anthropology

19.Grounded theory has its base in:
A. Symbolic Interaction theory
B. Heideggarian theory

20. List three reasons why qualitative research is suited for health care and human experience.

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