B. What is the difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal designs?
Quantitative research involves measuring a relationship between variables. The independent
variable is applied to produce an outcome, or dependent variable. Three of the most common
quantitative designs are: Observation studies; correlation research; and survey research (Leedy &
Ormrod, 2010). In quantitative research the observation study generally focuses on a single behavior
and quantifies the behavior either using a rating scale or by measuring the number of occurrences. A
question that may be suitable for a quantitative observation study may measure the number of times a
patient calls for medication instructions within a certain age group or within a specific disease category
(ie: patients newly diagnosed with Type II Diabetes). Another suitable question may ...
The difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal designs is clearly discussed.