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Cross-sectional and Quasi-experimental designs

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I am having trouble finding the strengths and limitations of Cross-Sectional and Quasi-Experimental Designs. Please help explain its limitations and weaknesses.

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Cross-sectional designs allow you to look for age-related changes, and to establish those changes quickly because we are comparing people of different ages at a given point in time. For example, you might select 10 20-year-olds, 10 30-year-olds, and 10 40-year-olds to compare how income levels change with age. The key point (and the key advantage) is that by comparing different people in each age group, you can get an idea of changes with age without waiting for people to age; this is much faster than using a longitudinal design where we have to measure people when they are 20 years old, wait 10 years and measure them again (at age 30), then wait another 10 years to measure them at age 40. The key disadvantage of ...

Solution Summary

This solution describes the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional designs, using an example.
It also describes the drawbacks of quasi-experimental designs.

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Statistics Questions - quasi-experiments

A. Complete Jackson Even-numbered chapter exercises, p, 360

1Describe the advantages and disadvantages of quasi-experiments? What is the fundamental weakness of a quasi-experimental design? Why is it a weakness? Does its weakness always matter?
2If you randomly assign participants to groups, can you assume the groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study? At the end? Why or why not? If you cannot assume equivalence at either end, what can you do? Please explain.
3Explain and give examples of how the particular outcomes of a study can suggest if a particular threat is likely to have been present.
4Describe each of the following types of designs, explain its logic, and why the design does or does not address the selection threats discussed in Chapter 7 of Trochim and Donnelly (2006):
Non-equivalent control group pretest only
Non-equivalent control group pretest/posttest
5Why are quasi-experimental designs used more often than experimental designs?
6One conclusion you might reach (hint) after completing the readings for this assignment is that there are no bad designs, only bad design choices (and implementations). State a research question for which a single-group post-test only design can yield relatively unambiguous findings.

Part II - Answer the following questions:
1What research question(s) does the study address?
2What is Goldberg's rationale for the study? Was the study designed to contribute to theory? Do the results of the study contribute to theory? For both questions: If so, how? If not, why not?
3What constructs does the study address? How are they operationalized?
4What are the independent and dependent variables in the study?
5Name the type of design the researchers used.
6What internal and external validity threats did the researchers address in their design? How did they address them? Are there threats they did not address? If so how does the failure to address the threats affect the researchers' interpretations of their findings? Are Goldberg's conclusions convincing? Why or why not?
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