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Blood Lymphatic Disorders & Cardiovascular Disorders

Blood and Lymphatic Disorders

2. Explain the cause of incompatible blood transfusion.

3. List three types of clotting problems.

4. Explain how pernicious anemia may develop from chronic gastritis.

5. For which conditions could secondary polycythemia develop as compensation: VSD, CHF, chronic lung disease, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma.

6. Explain how DIC develops and state two signs of its development.

8. Compare Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma with regard to the malignant cell, location of the tumor, spread of the tumor, and presenting signs.

Cardiovascular Disorders

5. If you had a client with persistent chest pain following rest and administration of nitroglycerin, what action would you take?

7. List and explain briefly three possible causes of cardiac dysrhythmias.

8. Differentiate heart blocks from PVCs with regard to causes and effects on heart action.

9. Choose one aspect of CHF that might apply in your field of work and explain your concern.

13. Explain why untreated essential hypertension is dangerous.

14. Define and explain the term intermittent claudication.

15. Describe three early signs of shock and the rationale for each.

I need help and suggestions for these questions. Thank you.

Solution Preview

Interesting set of questions! One way to help with an assignment like this one is to look at information from various sources including the links, which you can draw on for your final response. This is the approach this response takes. However, two questions are application questions asking for your personal experiences and actions, which you will need to complete.

Let's take a closer look.


2. Explain the cause of incompatible blood transfusion.

Most incompatible transfusions result not from laboratory errors but from mistakes in identification such as the faulty labeling of samples taken for testing before transfusion or misidentification of the patient receiving the transfusion. Most transfusion errors result from blood being given to the wrong patient. For example, in a study in Glasgow of 20 000 recipients of more than 60 000 units of blood, an estimated 1 in 3 300 patients received ABO incompatible blood - all because of the failure to identify patients or blood samples correctly. In fact, the true frequency with which the wrong blood was transfused must have been at least three times higher as the distribution of ABO blood groups in these patients is such that when the wrong blood is given by chance it is ABO incompatible in only one in three instances. This means that two out of three patients were fortunate enough to receive blood of their own or of a compatible ABO group even though they were not the intended recipients. Moreover, only those patients who had a reaction were investigated, which accounts for only a small proportion of those receiving incompatible transfusions. Recent studies show that the incidence of transfusion errors has not decreased (

3. List three types of clotting problems.

The body's clotting system depends on platelets as well as many clotting factors and other blood components. If a hereditary defect affects any of these components, clotting problems can occur. Three types of clotting problem are as follows:

· Hemophilia, an inherited condition that almost exclusively affects boys, involves a lack of particular clotting factors in the blood. People with severe hemophilia are at risk for excessive bleeding and bruising after dental work, surgery, and trauma. They may experience episodes of life-threatening internal bleeding, even if they haven't been injured.
· Von Willebrand disease, the most common hereditary bleeding disorder, also involves a clotting-factor deficiency. It affects both males and females.
· Other causes of clotting problems include chronic liver disease (clotting factors are produced in the liver) and vitamin K deficiency (the vitamin is necessary for the production of certain clotting factors).

4. Explain how pernicious anemia may develop from chronic gastritis.

Pernicious anemia is a type of anemia (low red blood cell count) caused by the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12. Said another way, it is a blood disorder caused by a lack of vitamin B12. Patients who have this disorder do not produce the substance in the stomach that allows the body to absorb vitamin B12.
Pernicious anemia may develop from chronic gastritis, because when it is treated to reduce acid in the stomach, it reduces the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12. Specifically, chronic gastritis is usually treated to reduce the acid in the stomach. For the body to use vitamin B-12, it must hook up with an intrinsic factor found in the stomach. When there is less acid, the hook up does not happen readily, and the ability of the body to use vitamin B-12 is decreased. It is a complicated relationship, but the use of antacids can reduce the ability to use vitamin B12. That is why many people, especially the older adults, get vitamin B12 shots, or take supplements.

5. For which conditions could secondary polycythemia develop as compensation: VSD (ventricular septal defect), CHF, chronic lung disease, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma.

Secondary polycythemia is linked to a decreased level of oxygen in the blood. Thus, the diseases with symptoms associated with lower levels of oxygen can also develop secondary polycythemia. It is important to understand the different types of blood cells to understand the link to ...

Solution Summary

This solution responds to the question related to two topics: Blood and Lymphatic Disorders, as well as Cardiovascular Disorders. References are provided.