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Group communication

I describe the following concepts: supportive and defensive communication climates, comfirming and disconfirming responses, cohesiveness, active listening, and verbal and non-verbal dynamics.

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As you define these terms, please note how they are vast and depend upon the course or theorist. Since I am not in your class, I offer generalized data to help. I look forward to more work with you soon:

As you first define defensive climates, please note that they are often very evaluative in nature. In other words, research shows that they often have messages that "carry judgments of right and wrong, good or bad, and nonverbal cues of evaluation" (

In addition, control is also a trait of defensive climates because communicators try to use their own power to get others to think or act as they do in communication situations.

Again, you might add that these climates also carry a note of strategy and their messages sometimes carry a tone of neutrality or indifference.

Superiority, too, seems to dominate, making power shifts occur. The members often create a feeling of certainty in their messages where an "all or nothing," black and white division seems to permeate the content.

It is obvious that these types of defensive climates deter communication. People do not feel comfortable when power is unbalanced, emotions are fired, etc.

In contrast, you might look at supportive communication climates. Gibb, a leading theorist, characterizes key aspects of supportive climates. This theorist asserts that supportive communication does what it implies: it "supports" or assists teams or groups in many ways.

For example, you might list some key traits are language usages that are descriptive and nonjudgmental. Research also suggests that supportive communication is "Spontaneous (as opposed to manipulative)" (

Beyond that, this type of climate is also emotionally supportive since it is "Empathic and concerned" (

Instead of coercive, you might emphasize that it is quite "Egalitarian (as opposed to superior)" (

Finally, you might also look to or cite Redding's theory. Redding devised elements of ...

Solution Summary

Group communication elements are included.