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Discussing System Design

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Hi, I need some assistance answering the following questions:

- Why is reliability important in system design? When in the life-cycle process should it be considered? To what extent should reliability be emphasized in system design, and what are some of the factors that govern this?

- What are the quantitative measures of reliability (discuss measures for hardware, software, personnel, facilities, and data)?

- Define operational availability, achieved availability, inherent availability, system effectiveness, and cost effectiveness.

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Solution Summary

This solution is comprised of a detailed response to the following questions asked which pertain to system design and other particular concepts related to engineering. The definitions provided are very thorough and examples are also included. A word document needs to be opened to view the solution,

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Reliability generally refers to how, why, and when system hardware and software failures occur. A system is reliable if malfunctions or failures occur infrequently, and have small impact on mission success. Otherwise it is unreliable. The degree of reliability and types of failure are important and should be quantified. Reliability is important in system design because it affects Mission Success (unreliability can degrade improved performance), it affects the logistical burden the system imposes. As well, it affects the performance on the battlefield and the change that the system will get to the battlefield, and life cycle cost to the nation.

Reliability needs to be considered during product design of the life cycle process. Some guidelines that may be followed when determining specific design for reliability at this stage are:
- Design must be based on the expected range of the operating environment.
- Design must minimize or balance stresses and thermal loads and/or reduce sensitivity to these stresses or loads.
- De-rate components for added margin
- Provide subsystem redundancy.
- Use proven component parts and materials with well-characterized reliability.
- Reduce parts count and interconnections (and their failure opportunities).
- Improve process capabilities to deliver more reliable components and assemblies.

Reliability should be fully emphasized in system design. The reliability of a product is strongly influenced by decisions made during the design process. Deficiencies in design affects all items produced and are progressively more expensive to correct as development proceeds. It is often not practicable or economic to change a design once production had started. It is therefore necessary that design disciplines are used which minimize the possibility of failure and which allow design deficiencies to be detected ...

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