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    Ideas for Activities for Adult Learners w/ Memory Issues

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    Here are descriptions of some memory techniques.

    Learning for understanding

    Concepts that are foundational to the study of academic subjects, like evolution or democracy,
    are complex and cannot be memorized. Students need a lot of experience with information
    about these concepts in order to understand them. An instructor may assume that students understand
    the concepts contained in material they are teaching because students can correctly answer
    multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions related to the material. But, in many cases, these
    exercises can be done without understanding the concepts because statements can be found in
    the text that match the questions. Students may also seem to understand many concepts because
    they come to school with strong (and largely functional) ideas about how the world works.
    But sometimes the sequence of logic that results from applying what they know factually to more
    theoretical and complex knowledge creates false conclusions.

    For example, adults know that animals must eat to live, and that plants need water and soil to
    live, so they may conclude that plants "eat" soil. It may be difficult to explain the concept of
    photosynthesis - that plants have a radically different way of getting the energy they need to live
    from soil, water, and light.
    In addition to the methods mentioned previously (building factual knowledge, direct strategy
    instruction, active learning, using examples and analogies), you can build students' knowledge of
    concepts by doing the following. Using the example of "democracy":
    ● Define (1) what the concept is, and (2) what it is not (democracy is not the same as capitalism).
    ● Give examples of democratic countries (United States, France), and examples of nondemocratic
    countries (China, Cuba).
    ● Have students dissect and sort examples and non-examples by key factors, and come up
    with their own examples and non-examples.
    ● Lead students in a discussion about the factors related to democracy that have been
    identified, and prompt them to explain what they mean by asking "Why" questions.
    ● Have students write about the topic of democracy, both to help them use new vocabulary
    presented in text and discussions, and to help them (and you) see if they understand it.
    By giving examples, using discussion, asking "Why" questions, and having students work with
    the new information, instructors can help them take many separate pieces of information, connect
    them in a way that leads to understanding, and remember what the concept means.

    Making practice interesting
    Practice is vital for learning anything well. But dull, rote practice often turns students off. Some
    ideas for making practice more interesting are:
    Turn it into a team game - students can practice addition or multiplication by playing a card
    game, or practice vocabulary and spelling by playing Scrabble.
    Create an assignment that uses computers or has a real-world connection - writing a letter to
    a company or political representative, or making a family budget and using a computer to
    create a document with a table or graph.
    Do five minutes of group drill to fast music.
    Teach students to give themselves a reward after practicing for a certain amount of time -
    they can watch 30 minutes of TV after studying for 30 minutes.
    Have parents practice basic skills - like the alphabet, counting, addition and multiplication
    tables - with their school-age children.
    Some information and facts simply have to be memorized, and students should be made aware
    of this. On the other hand, not everything has to be memorized. For example, only one-half of the
    multiplication table needs to be memorized - a student who knows 4 x 6 = 24 should also know
    that 6 x 4 = 24. Memorization is very important, but it should be used judiciously

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 10, 2019, 2:48 am ad1c9bdddf
    https://brainmass.com/education/learning-teaching/ideas-for-activities-for-adult-learners-w-memory-issues-394911

    Solution Preview

    Here are ideas for activities, which can all be supported by the information that follows the activites listed.

    Here are far more than three activity ideas you can use:

    answering questions
    creating questions
    doing a project
    engaging in discussions
    hands-on activities
    summarizing
    taking notes or writing about
    presentation afterwards
    doing worksheets
    teaching another student
    working in groups with other adult learners
    --------------------------------------------------------------
    There is an example for each category that could be turned in to an activity for your assignment. Use the list above and combine it with the activities they did in the adult education examples.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ADULT LEARNERS
    Te a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s to Improve Learning and Comprehension

    http://www.doe.virginia.gov/federal_programs/esea/title1/part_b/even_start/adult_reading_instruction/adult_learners.pdf

    MEMORY

    Memory Techniques

    The ability to retain and retrieve information can be enhanced by using specific memory techniques.

    There are several proven memory techniques that can help students remember all the new
    facts, ideas, and skills they must absorb and learn. Before choosing a technique, it is important
    to figure out what kind of information you want students to learn:
    Do they need to remember a complex concept (like democracy or photosynthesis)?
    If so, learning for understanding is what they need.
    Do they need to remember a completely arbitrary fact (like 6 x 7 = 42 or the spelling of the
    word "science")? If so, practice is what they need.
    Do they need to learn a rule, shortcut or pattern (like the "I before E" spelling rule or the
    order of operations in math)? If so, memory tricks called mnemonics can help. Association
    could also be the best method here.

    Here are descriptions of some memory techniques.

    Learning for understanding

    Concepts that are foundational to the study of academic subjects, like evolution or democracy,
    are complex and cannot be memorized. Students need a lot of experience with information
    about these concepts in order to understand them. An instructor may assume that students understand
    the concepts contained in material they are teaching because students can correctly answer
    multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank questions related to the material. But, in many cases, these
    exercises can be done without understanding the concepts because statements can be found in
    the text that match the questions. Students may also seem to understand many concepts because
    they come to school with strong (and largely functional) ideas about how the world works.
    But sometimes the sequence of logic that results from applying what they know factually to more
    theoretical and complex knowledge creates false conclusions.

    For example, adults know that animals must eat to live, and that plants need water and soil to
    live, so they may conclude that plants "eat" soil. It may be difficult to explain the concept of
    photosynthesis - that plants have a radically different way of getting the energy they need to live
    from soil, water, and light.
    In addition to the methods mentioned previously (building factual knowledge, direct strategy
    instruction, active learning, using examples and analogies), you can build students' knowledge of
    concepts by doing the following. Using the example of "democracy":
    ● Define (1) what the concept is, and (2) what it is not (democracy is not the same as capitalism).
    ● Give examples of democratic countries (United States, France), and examples of nondemocratic
    countries (China, Cuba).
    ● Have students dissect and sort examples and non-examples by key factors, and come up
    with their own examples and non-examples.
    ● Lead students in a discussion about the factors related to democracy that have been
    identified, and prompt them to explain what they mean by asking "Why" questions.
    ● Have students write about the topic of democracy, both to help them use new vocabulary
    presented in text and discussions, and to help them (and you) see if they understand it.
    By giving examples, using discussion, asking "Why" questions, and having students work with
    the new information, instructors can help them take many separate pieces of information, connect
    them in a way that leads to understanding, and remember what the concept means.

    Making practice interesting
    Practice is vital for learning anything well. But dull, rote practice often turns students off. Some
    ideas for making practice more interesting are:
    ● Turn it into a team game - students can practice addition or multiplication by playing a card
    game, or practice vocabulary and spelling by playing Scrabble.
    ● Create an assignment that uses computers or has a real-world connection - writing a letter to
    a company or political representative, or making a family budget and using a computer to
    create a document with a table or graph.
    ● Do five minutes of group drill to fast music.
    ● Teach students to give themselves a reward after practicing for a certain amount of time -
    they can watch 30 minutes of TV after studying for 30 minutes.
    ● Have parents practice basic skills - like the alphabet, counting, addition and multiplication
    tables - with their school-age children.
    Some information and facts simply have to be memorized, and students should be made aware
    of this. On the other hand, not everything has to be memorized. For example, only one-half of the
    multiplication table needs to be memorized - a student who knows 4 x 6 = 24 should also know
    that 6 x 4 = 24. Memorization is very important, but it should be used judiciously
    --------------
    Mnemonics

    Many important facts are also totally arbitrary, such as the steps in long division (Divide,
    Multiply, Subtract, Bring down - DMSB). As teachers, we can make these arbitrary facts more
    memorable by using phrases, letters or stories. For example, the steps in long division can be
    remembered as Does Math Seem Bad? or some other such phrase, which is called a verbal
    mnemonic. Some well-known verbal mnemonics include:
    Arteries go Away from the heart.
    Every Good Boy Does Fine for the written musical notes on the upper register lines of the staff
    (E, G, B, D, F).
    SOHCAHTOA the famous chief of the Trigonometry tribe (Sin = Opposite over Hypotenuse,
    etc.).

    Rhymes are another type of mnemonic, with some examples being the number of days in the
    months (30 days hath September . . .), spelling rules ("I" before "E" except after "C"), and multiplication
    tables ("2 times 4 is 8, that's great"). Some programs use rap, playground chants or other
    music genres to make up mnemonics.

    A third type of mnemonic is a cartoon, such as four quarts of milk playing musical instruments
    as a way to remember "quartet" (this mnemonic was devised by GED students).
    Mnemonics are very effective, and they are even more effective if the students make up the
    phrases, key words, songs, or drawings themselves.
    Association

    A fourth proven memory technique is association - memorizing one thing, and then connecting
    or associating other things to it. For example, students only need to memorize the spelling of
    "science" and then they can associate the spelling of "scientific" and "scientist." Likewise, students
    can sound out the spelling of "democratic," and learn that "democrat" and "democracy"
    are spelled using the same root pattern. Learning "pediatrician" helps you figure out "pediatrics"
    and "Pedialyte." Likewise, memorizing 4 x 6 = 24, and then learning that 6 x 4 = 4 x 6 = 24 is
    an example of association.

    In summary, the key to helping students remember information better is to make whatever they
    are learning meaningful in some way, whether that is understanding why the information is useful,
    getting a conceptual understanding of it, or making it memorable with a rhyme, song, picture or
    association.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    High Expectations

    Creating a culture in the classroom and the program where achievement is expected can bolster student learning.

    Many of our adult students were not successful in school. Many were consistently behind
    their peers academically, which is one of the most cited reasons for dropping out of school.
    So students come to us with low confidence in their ability to learn. At the same time, they
    have some belief that they can learn, otherwise, why would they come? Instructors need to
    communicate to students that they believe they can learn regardless of their previous school
    experiences. Holding high expectations of students should also encourage instructors to be
    creative in explaining things in multiple ways, teaching powerful learning strategies, and using
    examples that are familiar and relevant to students.

    Examples in Practice:

    Adult Education. Cara, an administrator, went to a pre-GED "graduation" ceremony at a
    nearby program. As the students received their certificates, many of them talked about the
    encouragement they got from their teachers, how the students supported each other, and
    how much work the students themselves had put into studying and learning. Cara decided
    that a similar ceremony at her program would send the message that staff and students had
    high expectations for learning, and that students could meet those expectations if they did
    the work.

    -----------------------------------------------------
    Using Background Knowledge

    Adults often have much knowledge about their jobs, how to deal with domestic and daily issues like
    paying bills and transportation, and other knowledge that children are not likely to have. However, it
    can be surprising how little knowledge some adult learners have about academic or school-related topics.
    For example, they may not know what it means to declare war, where different foods come from,
    how to figure out the change due for a purchase, or that American pioneers did not drive cars. As
    instructors with far more education, we take this type of background knowledge for granted.
    A lack of background knowledge can make it difficult for students to read, learn, and remember what
    they have learned, especially from textbooks and other materials used in typical adult education classes.
    Background knowledge also helps students comprehend what they read, figure out new words, figure out
    the answers to questions (solve problems), and apply their skills in new areas (transfer).
    To enhance adults' background knowledge, teachers of adults need to expose them to new information
    through reading, field trips, discussions, and hands-on learning activities. While sticking to
    topics that students already know about may be more comfortable for all, it will not help students
    learn very much. Teachers should check each lesson to identify the foundational information that is
    needed to understand it (see Task Analysis), and then be sure to teach that information instead
    of assuming that students know it already.

    Examples in Practice:

    Adult Education. Jennifer, a basic literacy tutor, has realized that her student does not understand
    the taxes and benefits on his pay stub. She explains each box on one pay stub, and has him
    explain back to her using another pay stub. To relate this to his reading instruction, they also
    use words like tax, box, and net from the form to work on his decoding skills.

    The human mind learns and remembers by connecting new information to old. If a person does not have existing knowledge to connect new information to, then learning is extremely difficult.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Using Active Learning

    Learning is much less likely to occur when students passively listen or observe than when they
    are actively involved. Learners need to think about new facts, ideas and skills; use them to think
    about questions (problem solving); and apply them to new areas in order to effectively learn and
    retain information. Active involvement on the part of the learner can take many forms, for example:
    It is crucial that students actively work with the facts, ideas, and skills they are learning, rather
    than just hear someone talk about what they are supposed to learn. For example, students learn
    more from a field trip where they take notes, fill out a checklist, or write a report about the trip,
    than when they simply attend and observe. Self-study, which is often presumed to be active
    because the student is self-directed, can also be very passive if the student simply reads whatever
    is assigned but does not engage in additional learning activities. Self-study can also be very
    frustrating to students if they do not have the background knowledge, skills, and strategies to
    learn from a textbook (see Background Knowledge and Direct Strategies).

    Examples in Practice:

    Adult Education. Catherine, a GED teacher, inherited a geometry class from another teacher.
    The students were used to sitting silently, reading their textbooks and doing written exercises
    for the 45-minute class, and only one or two students ever raised a hand to ask for help.
    Catherine wanted to change this and encourage participation, so she decided to begin each
    class with a real-life math problem for the group to discuss. After a brief class discussion
    about different ways to solve the problem, she put the students into small groups and asked
    them to prepare and present their answers to the real-life problem and one from the textbook.
    The groups needed a lot of help to learn how to explore problems together, but by the end of
    the semester they were making good progress and had learned an important work skill, too
    (see Learning in Groups).
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Thinking about Thinking (Metacognition)

    Adults enhance their ability to learn and understand information when they can "monitor their own thinking."

    As children mature, they become more aware of their own feelings, thoughts, and preferences.
    So we might assume that adults, who have more life experience, often reflect on their
    own thinking related to learning - about how well they understand something from a lesson or
    if they have mastered certain material and are ready to take a test. However, adults' level of
    personal self-awareness does not automatically transfer to school learning. This is partly
    because it is hard to be aware of how well you are doing when you do not know much about
    a subject.

    For example, can you find the error in this paragraph?

    Correlation is a measure of association between two variables. A correlation can be positive
    or negative; a positive correlation means that an increase in one variable is associated
    with a decrease in the other variable. Positive correlations range from >0 to 1, negative correlations
    from <0 to -1.

    Probably not, unless you know something about this particular statistics topic.

    You may not know enough to decide what to pay attention to or where to look for errors.
    How can we teach students to monitor their own level of understanding? One of the most effective
    ways is to ask them "Why" questions: Why do you say that? Why did you give that answer?
    What information is your answer based on? (It is important to ask "why" even if the answer is correct.)
    We can also teach specific learning strategies, like summarizing or generating questions,
    that help students realize whether they comprehend what they have learned. And we can send a
    strong message that the ultimate purpose of education classes is understanding what we learn, not
    just getting the answer right. This can help students get in the habit of ...

    Solution Summary

    Here are ideas for activities, which can all be supported by the information that follows the activites listed.

    Here are far more than three activity ideas you can use:

    answering questions
    creating questions
    doing a project
    engaging in discussions
    hands-on activities
    summarizing
    taking notes or writing about
    presentation afterwards
    doing worksheets
    teaching another student
    working in groups with other adult learners

    There is an example for each category that could be turned in to an activity for your assignment. Use the list above and combine it with the activities they did in the adult education examples. Mnemonics

    Many important facts are also totally arbitrary, such as the steps in long division (Divide,
    Multiply, Subtract, Bring down - DMSB). As teachers, we can make these arbitrary facts more
    memorable by using phrases, letters or stories. For example, the steps in long division can be
    remembered as Does Math Seem Bad? or some other such phrase, which is called a verbal
    mnemonic. Some well-known verbal mnemonics include:
    Arteries go Away from the heart.
    Every Good Boy Does Fine for the written musical notes on the upper register lines of the staff
    (E, G, B, D, F).
    SOHCAHTOA the famous chief of the Trigonometry tribe (Sin = Opposite over Hypotenuse,
    etc.).

    $2.19