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Telecommunications and Networking

Your initial meeting with upper management has generated the need to deliver a formal presentation to all staff, introducing them to a few key communciation concepts. Keep in mind that you will have a mixed audience of technical and non-technical managers. The key to your presentation will be to take technical issues and communicate them in clear language. Focus on the real-life application of technology.

Your written notes should include the following:

1. Briefly define asynchronous communications, synchronous communications, and digital and analog data transmission. Compare the efficiency of synchronous communication verus asynchronous communication, and digital versus analog data transmission.
2. In the context of a communication system, define what a protocol is. Briefly discuss each of the following operating problems that protocols solve regarding framing, error control, and sequence control.
3. Define packet switching and the benefits of packet switching. What are examples of packet switching networks?

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Asynchronous Communications
An asynchronous communication is the transmission of data/signals without using a clock signal. This means that the clocks of the transmitter and the receiver need not be synchronized. Data recovery in asynchronous communication is encoded within the transmitted signal. In asynchronous communication, the receiver can wait on long periods between data transmission, but must be ready at all times for any incoming data. It is like typing through the keyboard. The computer can wait for its user to type any character to the keyboard, but must be ready to accept the data from the keyboard on the moment the user will type. Other applications of asynchronous communications are PC-to-printer communication and PC-to-modem communication.

Synchronous Communications
A synchronous communication is the transmission of data/signals with the use of a clock signal. This means that the receiver and transmitter must have their clocks synchronized to be able to successfully send the data. Unlike asynchronous communication wherein the receiver must always be ready to receive data, synchronous communication will only allow the receiver to get the data when its clock and the transmitter's clock are aligned. An example of synchronous communication is online chat. Once the 2 computers have synchronous clocking, any messages send by one computer will reach the other in real ...

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