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Bottom-up vs Top-down Database Design

I need detailed (elaborate) help with the following question with all cites duly referenced.

Question
The process of starting with world objects and modelling using entity-relationship diagrams is referred to as a bottom-up process. Starting with one large table and functional dependencies using normalization is referred to as top-down development. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? Are there any inherit dangers with either method? Which would you prefer to use? Is it really an either-or situation?

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Dear Student,

Entity-relationship diagram (ERD) approach was introduced by Chen (Chen, 1976). Lewis et.al. say it is a design methodology and not a data model. The main components of ERD are entity and relationship. Entity models the objects that are involved in an enterprise. Relationship models the connections among the entities.
ERD remains that they enjoy comparatively little by way of a solid ...

Solution Summary

A brief but detailed introduction to database design. The process of starting with world objects and modelling using entity-relationship diagrams is referred to as a bottom-up process. Starting with one large table and functional dependencies using normalization is referred to as top-down development.

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