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Brain Structures and Areas

Describe different structures and areas within the brain.

Discuss in detail the thalamus, hypothalamus, endocrine and limbic systems.

Be sure to discuss the location in the brain, their functions, disorders/pathology related to damage to these structures, and other important information in regards to these structures.

Finally, describe the functions of the right and left hemispheres within the brain. Are specific functions specialized in one area of the brain? Provide evidence to support your viewpoint. References please.

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Please see the response attached. I hope this helps and take care.

Update: June 13, 2009:

Note: The link for the concluding remarks in the attached response is not listed in-text --see http://ezinearticles.com/?How-Are-Brain-Contusions-Different-from-Brain-Concussions?&id=102578)

This appears to be a research paper. The questions are very useful, in that they provide a tentative outline for the paper. Also, they are straightforward, giving you clear direction as to what to include in the paper. Let's look at each section (question) individually, and you can then use the information for writing your final draft.
I. Introduction (1/4 to ½ page, introduce topic, and include purpose statement e.g., The purpose of this paper is to ...)
II. Brain Structures, functions and pathologies
a. Thalamus
b. Hypothalamus
III. Endocrine and Limbic systems
IV. Right and Left Hemisphere
a. Specialized functions
V. Conclusion/discussion

Let's look at each question and potential information to include for each section:
E.G Introduction material moves from general to the specific, and usually ends with your purpose statement.
- It is good to begin with a statement that sparks the interest of the reader, such as the following statements:
"From the brain and the brain alone arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains and griefs" Hippocrateshttp://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml

Aristotle (384-322 BC) knew that touching the brain did not cause any sensation. He concluded that the heart must be the structure, which controlled sensations. http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml

- The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord, immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Weighing about 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms), the brain consists of three main structures: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. The cerebellum is divided into two hemispheres (left and right), each consists of four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). The outer layer of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex or the 'grey matter'. It covers the nuclei deep within the cerebral hemisphere known as the 'white matter' (http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml). The purpose of the paper is to....
And so on...
Let's look at the questions below:
1. Describe different structures and areas within the brain. Discuss in detail the thalamus, hypothalamus, endocrine and limbic systems. Be sure to discuss the location in the brain, their functions, disorders/pathology related to damage to these structures, and other important information in regards to these structures.
2. Finally, describe the functions of the right and left hemispheres within the brain. Are specific functions specialized in one area of the brain? Provide evidence to support your viewpoint. References a must.
No files attached.
Bid Credits: 3 Deadline: February 25, 2006, 12:33 pm EST

1. Describe different structures and areas within the brain. Discuss in detail the thalamus, hypothalamus, endocrine and limbic systems. Be sure to discuss the location in the brain, their functions, disorders/pathology related to damage to these structures, and other important information in regards to these structures.

Brain Structures: Thalamus and Hypothalamus
The thalamus and hypothalamus are prominent internal structures. Specifically, they are part of the brain's white matter - neuronal tissue containing mainly long, myelinated axons, is known as white matter or the diencephalon. Situated between the brainstem and cerebellum, the white matter consists of structures at the core of the brain such as the thalamus and hypothalamus. The nuclei of the white matter are involved in the relay of sensory information from the rest of the body to the cerebral cortex, as well as in the regulation of autonomic (unconscious) functions such as body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure. Certain nuclei within the white matter are involved in the expression of emotions, the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, and in the regulation of food and water intake. These nuclei are generally considered part of the limbic system. http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml
Thalamus
The thalamus has wide-ranging connections with the cortex and many other parts of the brain, such as the basal ganglia, hypothalmus and brainstem. Specifically it is a collection of nuclei forming a major structural component of the forebrain. The thalamus has numerous functions, the most important being to relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex. It is capable of perceiving pain but not at accurately locating it. http://www.brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml
Functions:
- Sensory Integration
- Motor Integration http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/sagittal.html

The thalamus is the ...

Solution Summary

By responding to the questions in detail, this solution describes different structures and areas within the brain. Research validated with references included.

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