Before spectroscopy was invented...
a) Draw the structures of these two isomers.
b) A turn of the 20th century chemist isolated an aromatic compound...
Please see attached for further explanations© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 24, 2018, 6:25 pm ad1c9bdddf
Xylene is a disubstituted benzene with methyl groups on the ring. Ortho-xylene, therefore, is composed of a benzene ring with methyl groups on positions 1 and 2 of the ring. In other words, the two methyl groups are side by side.
Therefore, when you add one nitrate group, NO2, two possible isomers can form. Let's just keep the numbering system we started above, i.e. that the 2 methyl groups are on carbons 1 and 2. Therefore, one isomer could have nitrate group on carbon 3 or carbon 6. Either way, it would look the same. Draw them out so that you can see this.
The other isomer would have the nitrate group on either carbons 4 or 5. Either way, those compounds would look the same.
Therefore, the two isomers formed are 1,2-dimethyl-3-nitrobenzene
See the attached file for ...
The solution involves explanations for how compounds were determined before spectroscopy was invented, along with calculations for determining a compound with spectroscopy.
Environmental Chemistry questions
A) Draw the Lewis structure of chlorine nitrate.
b) Write out the chemical equations showing how chlorine nitrate is formed in the stratosphere and for the reactions that convert it back to active chlorine compounds. Include reactions that occur in polar stratospheric clouds.
Calculate the rate constants at 220 K for Reactions 1 and 2.
Offer an explanation for why Reaction 2 has an activation energy of approximately zero.
Consider the net reaction in Question 2:
O + O3 O2 + O2
The standard enthalpies of formation of O and O3 are 249.2 and 142.7 kJ mol−1, respectively. Calculate the reaction enthalpy. Why does this reaction not proceed on its own, to any appreciable extent, in the stratosphere?
In particulate sampling, air is drawn through a filter, which collects the particulates. In one sampling, the initial weight of the filter was 3.347 g. The final filter weight was 3.762 g. If the average flow rate of air through the filter was 49 cubic feet per minute, and the sample was collected over 24 hours, what is the TSP concentration in μg/m3 for this sample?
(1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3)
Write out the steps for the atmospheric oxidation of ethane.
Write out the steps for the atmospheric oxidation of propylene.
The atmospheric residence time of methane in the atmosphere is 12 years. If global methane emissions total 600 Mt (megatonnes) per year, what is the steady state concentration of methane in the atmosphere in Mt??in ppm?
Note: The total mass of the atmosphere is 5.1 ?1018 kg, and the average molar mass is 29.0 g/mol.
A) In petroleum production, the term "solution gas" refers to gases that are dissolved in the petroleum reservoir because of the high pressure conditions underground, but become gaseous when the oil is brought to the surface. In 2007 in Alberta, 3.25 ?108 m3 of solution gas was flared (burned off) from crude oil and crude bitumen batteries. Assuming that the solution gas was 100% methane, how many moles of CO2 are produced from this flaring? What is the increase in global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, in ppmv, resulting from this activity?
Note: The total mass of the atmosphere is 5.1 ?1018 kg, and the average molar mass is
b) In 2005, Alberta used 26 Mt (megatonnes) of coal to generate electricity. Assuming that 100% of the coal is converted to CO2, how many moles of CO2 are produced? What is the increase in global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, in ppmv, caused by this activity?
At the Braidwood nuclear power plant in Illinois, between 1996 and 2000,millions of litres of radioactive cooling water were leaked on the site, and groundwater is now contaminated with high levels of tritium. Tritium is a beta emitter with a half life of 12.3 years. Monitoring wells on the site have found groundwater radioactivity of up to 282,000 pCi/L. The EPA drinking water standard is 20,000 pCi/L. If the contaminated groundwater remained static and there was no decrease in tritium levels resulting from groundwater flow, how many years would it take for the radioactivity to decrease from 282,000 pCi/L to 20,000 pCi/L?View Full Posting Details