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Polymerization Branching Mechanism

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Write a mechanism to show how branching occurred in the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene to yield the polymer shown (the polymer is attached).

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The answer is in the attachments (I made a pdf. copy of the .doc original in case you have trouble with either file type).

When propene reacts to form a polymer, the pi-bond breaks homolytically ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides an attachment showing the steps of the mechanism for the branching occurring in the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene described using step-by-step diagrams and careful, clear explanation.

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Glucose, Glycogen, Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle

See attached file.

Answer 1, 2 and 6

1. Both glycogen and cellulose are polyglucose molecules.
a. Draw the basic structure of each (two glucose units in the main chain and one in the branch is sufficient), numbering all atoms
b. Compare and contrast the function of these related compounds
c. What is/are the molecular reasons for this functional difference?
d. How do you suppose a cell can make these two separate molecules without making errors such as glycogen-cellulose hybrid molecules?

2. Diagram the pathway of Glycolysis from glucose to pyruvate, giving structures and names of all pathway intermediates (enzyme mechanisms are not required) and names of enzymes (no abbreviations). Indicate where ADP, ATP, Pi, NAD+, or NADH is a substrate or product of a reaction.

6. Diagram the Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, beginning with pyruvate, giving structures and names of all enzyme substrates and products and names of enzymes (no abbreviations). Include on your diagram where (see attached file) where coenzyme A, H2O, or CO2 are substrates or products of reactions.

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