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    Chemical Bonding and States of Matter

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    Please help with the 6 questions below.

    1. The structural formula for ethanol, the alcohol in alcoholic beverages. Give the total number of:
    H H
    | |
    H -C - C - O - H
    | |
    H H
    (a) valence electrons,
    (b) single bonds, and
    (c) bonding pairs of electrons.
    How many extra pairs of electrons are left?
    What are these called, and where should they be placed in the structural formula?

    2. Explain why the pressure of the atmosphere decreases with increasing altitude

    3. Draw a structure showing four water molecules bonded to a central water molecule by means of hydrogen bonding. Indicate all the hydrogen bonds by drawing arrows to them.

    4. Why are gases compressible, whereas liquids and solids are not?

    5. Victims of carbon monoxide poisoning are placed in a hyperbaric chamber where the pressure is raised above 1 atm and a richer oxygen environment exists. If the pressure is raised from 1 atm to 3 atm, what will be the proportional change in oxygen solubility in blood? Use Henryâ??s law and assume blood behaves like water.

    6. Predict the boiling point for octane, C8H18, using the observed boiling points for the similar hydrocarbons hexane, C6H14; 68.7°C; heptane, C7H16; 98.4°C; and nonane, C9H20; 150.8°C.

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    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    Answers to questions 1 and 3 are attached. The rest are below:

    Q2) Atmospheric pressure at any given point has to do with the 'weight' of the air above that point. So as you increase the altitude there will be less air above you and weight of air becomes less and therefore, the pressure is decreased.
    Q4) Gases are compressible because there is a relatively large distance between the gaseous molecules, whereas in liquids and solids molecules are much closer together and dispersal forces between the molecules causes them to repel one another and hence liquids and solids can not be compressed.
    Q5) Henry's law is: pressure=constant x concentration of solute so you can see that there is a direct linearity between pressure and concentration so as the pressure is raised 3 times the concentration of solute will be increased by 3 times. I.e. oxygen solubility is increased by 3 times.
    Q6) Based on the formula the boiling point for octane should be between C7H16 and C9H20 so between 98.4 and 150.8 (in fact the actual boiling point is about 125C)

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

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