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Use of MO-Theory and MO-diagram for Species of Nitrogen, N2

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Nitrogen, N2, can ionize to form N2+ or add an electron to give N2-. Using molecular orbital theory, compare these species with regard to their magnetic character, net number of pi bonds, bond order, bond length, and bond strength.

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Solution Summary

The focus lies on the use of the periodic table find out the electronic parameters of nitrogen. Number of electrons and atomic orbitals (AO) are required first. Second, Hund's rule and Pauli rule are used to find out the electronic structure of a given atom. Third, forming of molecular orbitals is described and then how to predict differences of the bonds and magnetic character of the different nitrogen species.

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First of all we need the MO - diagram of the different species to answer this question.

First, we have to find out how many electrons and atomic orbitals (AO) are contributed by every N - atom.
We start with the neutral N2 molecule and form then the N2+ and N2- species:

Nitrogen is an element of the second period and 15th group. That tells us the numbers of AO's and electrons.

Now let us have a look on the periodic table.
* The second period contains the following AO's : 1s , 2s , 2px , 2py , 2pz
* We can see that nitrogen has 7 electrons because of its 7 protons in its nucleus.

Following Hund's rule we have to place the electrons from the lowest orbital up to the highest one. The Pauli rule tells us that every orbital ...

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