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Environmental Chemistry and EPA Levels

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Your metropolitan area has been warned by the EPA to lower sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions or it will lose substantial federal funding. One citizen's group calls for conservation as a means of drastically reducing electricity consumption. A second group advocates curtailing the use of automobiles through a variety of means. Choose either of these or some other position to support. Research the position and present your findings by writing a couple paragraphs.

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Gather up a variety of plastic items from your residence - plastic bags, soda bottles, whatever happens to be at hand. Make a list of the objects and note the properties of the plastics. Include color, transparency, flexibility, elasticity, hardness, and other properties that could be used to classify and identify plastics. Try to draw conclusions about which objects are made from the same material.

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For each of these uses, specify the desirable properties of plastic and suggest the most suitable polymer or polymers.

a. a bread bag
b. a soft-drink bottle
c. "bubble" packaging around a toy
d. bottle caps
e. outdoor lawn furniture
f. a drinking water bottle

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Plastics vary in density. When placed in a liquid, a substance, such as plastic, floats if its density is less than that of the liquid, and the substance sinks if it is more dense than the liquid.

The densities (g/mL) of four common are: high-density polyethylene 0.95-0.97; polyethylene terephthalate 1.38-1.39; polypropylene 0.90-0.91; and polyvinyl chloride 1.18-1.65. The six liquids and their densities are:

Liquid Density (g/mL)

Methanol 0.79

An ethanol/water mixture 0.92

A different ethanol/water mixture 0.94
Water 1.0

Saturated Solution of MgC1 1.34
2

Saturated Solution of ZnC1 2.01
2

Using the densities of liquid and of the plastics given, develop a procedure by which the individual plastics can be separated from a mixture containing pieces of all four plastics.

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Offer an explanation for why Reaction 2 has an activation energy of approximately zero.

Consider the net reaction in Question 2:
O + O3  O2 + O2
The standard enthalpies of formation of O and O3 are 249.2 and 142.7 kJ mol−1, respectively. Calculate the reaction enthalpy. Why does this reaction not proceed on its own, to any appreciable extent, in the stratosphere?

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Write out the steps for the atmospheric oxidation of ethane.

Write out the steps for the atmospheric oxidation of propylene.
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Note: The total mass of the atmosphere is 5.1 ?1018 kg, and the average molar mass is 29.0 g/mol.

A) In petroleum production, the term "solution gas" refers to gases that are dissolved in the petroleum reservoir because of the high pressure conditions underground, but become gaseous when the oil is brought to the surface. In 2007 in Alberta, 3.25 ?108 m3 of solution gas was flared (burned off) from crude oil and crude bitumen batteries.   Assuming that the solution gas was 100% methane, how many moles of CO2 are produced from this flaring? What is the increase in global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, in ppmv, resulting from this activity?

Note: The total mass of the atmosphere is 5.1 ?1018 kg, and the average molar mass is
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At the Braidwood nuclear power plant in Illinois, between 1996 and 2000,millions of litres of radioactive cooling water were leaked on the site, and groundwater is now contaminated with high levels of tritium. Tritium is a beta emitter with a half life of 12.3 years. Monitoring wells on the site have found groundwater radioactivity of up to 282,000 pCi/L. The EPA drinking water standard is 20,000 pCi/L. If the contaminated groundwater remained static and there was no decrease in tritium levels resulting from groundwater flow, how many years would it take for the radioactivity to decrease from 282,000 pCi/L to 20,000 pCi/L?

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