Maintaining blood pH: the role and control of CO2 in blood buffering.
Maintenance of blood pH is critical to life. Slight fluctuations of pH result in conditions of acidosis or alkalosis. The carbonate buffer system is a key factor in controlling the pH. In this assignment you are to combine several key concepts in explaining this system.
Discuss how CO2 is produced and exchanged in the blood. In this discussion relate the exchange to Hess's law. Also discuss how increases or decreases in CO2 affect the equation you wrote in the first part of this assignment (Le Chatelier's Principle).
With regard to the lungs discuss how CO2 and O2 exchange. Relate this discussion to Dalton's law of partial pressure.
Normal blood pH is 7.4, what is the H3O+ concentration? What is the H3O+ concentration whent the pH is 7.2? When the pH is 7.2 is the equilibrium in question 1 shifted to the left or the right.
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The equilibrium equation can be shown as such:
CO2 + H2O <--> H2CO3
Carbonic Acid is diprotic, that is it has two hydrogens which disassociate. The first dissociation is:
H2CO3 <--> HCO3 <--> + H+
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gaseous waste product made from metabolism. Metabolism refers to all of the chemical processes that take place in the body, such as the burning of sugars (glucose) for energy and the release of digestive enzymes to break down food. Metabolism results in growth, the elimination of waste products (in ...
Over 300 words, illustrated by equations, relate lungs to Dalton's law of partial pressure.
Questions from Chemistry and Physiology
A 55-year-old woman visits a popular eatery for lunch. She orders a cheese and bacon pizza with extra cheese and has about 3 large glasses of cola (ph value 3). On the way back home, she experiences heartburn and abdominal pain, and has difficulty breathing. She drinks a lot of water and has to consume milk of magnesia (pH value 10.5) before she feels comfortable again.
Classify the liquids that she has consumed as acidic or alkaline.
State the pH values of water and blood.
State what the patient can include and avoid in her diet on a regular basis to avoid these symptoms in the future.
At a prominent state hospital, a 45-year-old woman is receiving a 'combined modality' treatment for the initial stage of breast cancer. State the two aspects included in this treatment. State the methods by which a radiation oncologist can administer these therapies. Additionally, state four major differences between the two modes of treatment.
The Managing Director of a well-known company on Wall Street thrives on a diet of fruit jam, bread, pasta, and coffee. She exercises intermittently. One day she decides to go to her primary healthcare provider for a routine checkup. The healthcare provider recommends that she take the Benedict's test. Assume that the glucose levels of the patient are high.
State the results that the test would indicate (specify the color of the solution).
State the composition and the properties of the ketohexose derived from fruit jam.
Describe the manner in which ketohexose acts as a reducing sugar in the test.
A freshman studying medicine at an Ivy League College is a part of his class crew team and exercises regularly. After a particularly strenuous exercise session, he experiences severe cramps in his thighs and pain in his biceps.
Explain the chemical process that occurred in his muscle cells to cause this discomfort.
Explain the chemical reactions that have possibly taken place in his body after the exercise.
Discuss possible treatments for the freshman and how the treatment works chemically.