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Each widget generates contribution margin of $100 ($250 selling price, less $150 variable expenses). The total fixed expenses are $35,000, the break-even point is:
A. 250
B. 350
C. 233
D. 140

Each widget the selling price is $2, and the variable cost per unit $1.60. The total fixed expenses are $12,000, the break-even point is:
A. 30,000
B. 12,000
C. 7,500
D. 6,000
XYZ has a target capital structure calling for 30% debt, 10% preferred stock, and 60% common equity. It before-tax cost of debt, is 11%; it after-tax cost of debt is 11 %( 0.6) = 6.6%; its cost of preferred stock is 10.3%; its cost of common equity is 14.5%; it marginal tax rate is 40%; and all of its new equity will come from retained earnings. XYZ weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is:
A. 11%
B. 11.7%
C. 10.7%
D. 10%
The present values are $7,471,000 for the cost of owning and $7, 367,000 for the cost of leasing. What is the net advantage to leasing (NAL)?
A. $148,300
B. $10,400
C. $1,483,000
D. $104,000
If receivables are $666,667 and sales are $10 million, the receivable collection period is:
A. 30 days
B. 24 days
C. 20 days
D. 34 days

If average inventories are $ 2 million and sales are $ 10 million, the inventory conversion period is
A. 66 days
B. 30 days
C. 72 days
D. 42 days
The cash is $1,200,000 the account receivable is $6,000,000 and current liabilities is $7,000,000. What is the acid-test (quick) ratio?
A. 1.03
B. 2.21
C. 1.27
D. 1.32
Voltar Company manufactures and sells a telephone answering machine. The company's contribution format income statement for the most recent year is given below:

Total Per Unit Percent of Sales
Sales (20,000 units) $1,200,000 $60 100%
Less variable expenses 900,000 45 ? %
Contribution margin 300,000 $15 ? %
Less fixed expenses 240,000

Net income

Management is anxious to improve the company's profit performance and has asked for several items of information.
Required
1. Compute the company's break-even point in both units and sales dollars. Use the equation method.
2. Refer to original data. Assume that next year management wants the company to earn a minimum profit of $90,000. How many units will have to be sold to meet this target profit figure?
3. Refer to the original data. Compute the company's margin of safety in both dollar and percentage form.
a) Compute the company's degree of operating leverage at the present level of sales.
b) Assume that through a more intense effort by the sales staff the company's sales increase by 8% next year. By what percentage would you expect net income to increase? Use the operating leverage concept to obtain your answer.
4. In an effort to increase sales and profits, management is considering the use of a higher- quality speaker. The higher-quality speaker would increase variable costs by $3 per unit, but management could eliminate one quality inspector who is paid a salary of $30,000 per year. The sales manager estimates that the higher-quality speaker would increase annual sales by at least 20%.

a) Compute the company's new break-even point in both units and dollars of sales. Use the contribution margin method

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Each widget generates contribution margin of $100 ($250 selling price, less $150 variable expenses). The total fixed expenses are $35,000, the break-even point is:
A. 250
B. 350
C. 233
D. 140
Answer: B
Break-even point in units = Total fixed expenses/Contribution margin per unit
= 35,000/100 = 350
Each widget the selling price is $2, and the variable cost per unit $1.60. The total fixed expenses are $12,000, the break-even point is:
A. 30,000
B. 12,000
C. 7,500
D. 6,000
Answer: A
Contribution margin per unit = Selling price - Variable cost per unit
Break-even point in units = Total fixed expenses/Contribution margin per unit
= 12,000/(2 - 1.60) = 30,000

XYZ has a target capital structure calling for 30% debt, 10% preferred stock, and 60% common equity. It before-tax cost of debt, is 11%; it after-tax cost of debt is 11 %( 0.6) = 6.6%; its cost of preferred stock is 10.3%; its cost of common equity is 14.5%; it marginal tax rate is 40%; and all of its new equity will come from retained earnings. XYZ weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is:
A. 11%
B. 11.7%
C. 10.7%
D. 10%
Answer: B

Then, we can replace the information found to find WACC. However, as the total amount of debt is not given, we are unable to find the weight of debt. We will assume that both debt and common stock is 50% weight.

WACC = WdKd(1 - T) + WpKp + WcKs

where Wd is the weight of ...

Solution Summary

This solution is comprised of a detailed explanation to find the break-even point.

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B) remain unchanged.
C) increase.
D) move toward 1.

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A) $144,104
B) $158,862
C) $38,030
D) $14,938

3) $100 is received at the end of year 1, $200 is received at the end of year 2, and $300 is received at the end of year 3. If the opportunity cost is 12 percent, their combined present value today is __________.
A) $600
B) $462
C) $1,245
D) $1,536

4) Marion makes annual end of year payments of $6,260.96 on a five year loan with an 8 percent interest rate. The original principal amount was
A) $25,000.
B) $20,000.
C) $31,000.
D) $30,000.

5) Indicate which of the following is true about annuities.
A) An ordinary annuity is an equal payment paid or received at the end of each period, that increases by an equal amount each period.
B) An annuity due is an equal payment paid or received at the beginning of each period.
C) An ordinary annuity is an equal payment paid or received at the beginning of each period.
D) An annuity due is a payment paid or received at the beginning of each period, that increases by an equal amount each period.

6) A college received a contribution to its endowment fund of $2 million. They can never touch the principal, but they can use the earnings. At an assumed interest rate of 9.5 percent, how much can the college earn to help its operations each year?
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C) $190,000
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7) The present value of $500 received four years from now if your opportunity cost is 8 percent (paid semiannually) is __________.
A) $684
B) $456
C) $365
D) $500

8) The ______ the coefficient of variation, the ______ the risk.
A) lower, lower
B) higher, lower
C) lower, higher
D) more stable, higher

9) The expected value, standard deviation of returns, and coefficient of variation for asset A are (See below.)

i. Asset A
2.

A) 10 percent, 8 percent, and 1.25, respectively.
B) 9.33 percent, 8 percent, and 2.15, respectively.
C) 9.35 percent, 4.68 percent, and 2, respectively.
D) 9.35 percent, 2.76 percent, and 0.3, respectively.

10) Last year Mike bought 100 shares of Dallas Corporation common stock for $53 per share. During the year he received dividends of $1.45 per share. The stock is currently selling for $57.75 per share. What rate of return did Mike earn over the year?
A) 11.7 percent.
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C) 14.1 percent.
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11) Combining two assets having perfectly negatively correlated returns will result in the creation of a portfolio with an overall risk that
A) increases to a level above that of either asset.
B) remains unchanged.
C) decreases to a level below that of either asset.
D) stabilizes to a level between the asset with the higher risk and the asset with the lower
a. risk.

12) The higher an asset's beta,
A) the less responsive it is to changing market returns.
B) the more responsive it is to changing market returns.
C) the higher the expected return will be in a down market.
D) the lower the expected return will be in an up market.

3. Table 5.2
4. You are going to invest $20,000 in a portfolio consisting of assets A, B, and C, as follows:

i. Asset Annual Return Beta Proportion
ii. A 6 1.3 0.40
iii. B 9 1.5 0.25
iv. C 12 1.1 0.35

13) Given the information in Table 5.2, what is the expected annual return of this portfolio?
A) 8.85%
B) 9.0%
C) 10.55%
D) 11.75%

14) A downward-sloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper long-term borrowing costs than short-term borrowing costs is called
A) normal yield curve.
B) inverted yield curve.
C) flat yield curve.
D) none of the above.

15) A feature that gives the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated price prior to maturity is called
A) stock purchase warrants.
B) call feature.
C) conversion feature.
D) None of the above.

16) If the required return is less than the coupon rate, a bond will sell at
A) par.
B) a discount.
C) a premium.
D) book value.

17) A firm has an issue of $1,000 par value bonds with a 9 percent stated interest rate outstanding. The issue pays interest annually and has 20 years remaining to its maturity date. If bonds of similar risk are currently earning 8 percent, the firm's bond will sell for __________ today.
A) $1,000
B) $716.67
C) $840.67
D) $1,098.18

18) What is the yield to maturity, to the nearest percent, for the following bond: current price is $908, coupon rate is 11 percent, $1,000 par value, interest paid annually, eight years to maturity?
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B) 11 percent
C) 13 percent
D) 12 percent

19) What is the current price of a $1000 par value bond maturing in 10 years with a coupon rate of 14 percent, paid semiannually, that has a YTM of 15 percent?
A) $1,050
B) $604
C) $949
D) $1,088

20) A firm has an outstanding issue of 1,000 shares of preferred stock with a $100 par value and an 8 percent annual dividend. The firm also has 5,000 shares of common stock outstanding. If the stock is cumulative and the board of directors has passed the preferred dividend for the prior two years, how much must the preferred stockholders be paid prior to paying dividends to common stockholders?
A) $ 8,000
B) $16,000
C) $24,000
D) $25,000

21) Shares of stock currently owned by the firm's shareholders are called
A) authorized.
B) issued.
C) outstanding.
D) treasury shares.

22) Advantages of issuing common stock versus long-term debt include all of the following EXCEPT
A) the effects of dilution on earnings and voting power.
B) no maturity.
C) increases firm's borrowing power.
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C) $22.40
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24) If expected return is less than required return on an asset, rational investors will
A) buy the asset, which will drive the price up and cause expected return to reach the
b. level of the required return.
B) sell the asset, which will drive the price down and cause the expected return to reach the level of the required return.
C) sell the asset, which will drive the price up and cause the expected return to reach the level of the required return.
D) buy the asset, since price is expected to increase.

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A) 10%
B) 12%
C) 13%
D) 14%

Short Answer

1. Asset A was purchased six months ago for $25,000 and has generated $1,500 cash flow during that period. What is the asset's rate of return if it can be sold for $26,750 today?

2. The following historical returns have been reported for Best Buy:

2002 9%
2003 11.5%
2004 3%
2005 7.0%
2006 10.0%

A) What was the average return for Best Buy during this five year period?

B) What is the standard deviation of Best Buy's returns for this period?

C) What is the coefficient of variation of Best Buy?

3. The H&H Computer Company has an outstanding issue of bond with a par value of $1,000, paying 12 percent coupon rate semi-annually. The bond was issued 25 years ago and has 5 years to maturity. What is the value of the bond assuming 14 percent market interest rate?

4. To buy his favorite car, Larry is planning to accumulate money by investing his Christmas bonuses for the next five years in a security which pays a 10 percent annual rate of return. The car will cost $20,000 at the end of the fifth year and Larry's Christmas bonus is $3,000 a year. Will Larry accumulate enough money to buy the car? How much additional will he either need or have?

5. Compute the value of a share of common stock of a company whose most recent dividend was $2.50 and is expected to grow at 6 percent per year for the next 2 years, after which the dividend growth rate will decrease to 3 percent per year indefinitely. Assume a 10 percent required rate of return.
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