Discuss in detail concepts and theory behind behavior modification and explain how reinforcement and punishment can be used to shape behavior?
Behavior modification may be explained through the so-called social learning theory. This is the view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience (Robbins, 1998). Through observation or experience, an individual may decide if he must continue or stop a particular behaviour. This theory assumes that behaviour is a function of consequences and that it acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception in learning. Robbins stated further that the influence of models is central to the social-learning viewpoint. Under reinforcement ...
This report includes a discussion of shaping behavior and the theory that served as the foundation. Three strategies may be utilized to shape an individual behavior - positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Positive reinforcement may encourage continuance of a behavior displayed by an employee. Both negative reinforcement and punishment may signal that a behavior must be discontinued. Shaping an individual behavior may be explained through the so-called social learning theory which assumes that people can learn through observation and direct experience.