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    The role of science in systems management

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    Explain the role of science in systems management.

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    Statistical Methods
    Output per man or machine was calculated in terms of direct relationships and this led to problems in forecasting production variables. It was not until statistical methods were developed that concepts such as probability were applied to forecasting, which in consequence became more reliable.

    The introduction of mathematics to business did much to simplify the analysis of problems. Mathematics was applied successfully to project control, strategic planning and decision analysis. F. W. Harris converted graphical descriptions of stock control models into mathematical models. In the same year, 1931, books were written on inventory control (F. E. Raymond) and statistical quality control (W. A. Shewhart of Bell Telephone Laboratories).

    Once the initial hostility that had impeded the progress of scientific management had dissipated, a number of texts appeared which tidied up and reinforced much of the work of the early pioneers. In 1934 Tippett who also set standards for ...