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The Preferable One Among the Four Motivation Theories

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Question: What are the four different theories for motivation? Select one theory of motivation, and explain why you prefer it over the other three.

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Basically, there are four main theories of motivation. These are:

1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
2. Dual Factor Theory
3. McClelland's Theory of Needs
4. Expectancy Theory

Cherry (2012) states that motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.

1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (McLeod, 2012)

Abraham Maslow (1954) presents a hierarchy of needs model which can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (cognitive, aesthetics and self-actualization).

One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

2. Dual Factor Theory (Anderson, 2012)

Frederick Herzberg's dual-factor theory, or two-factor theory, states that two consistent factors play into motivation, specifically in the workplace: hygiene and motivators. Hygiene factors are those which, if absent from a workplace, cause dissatisfaction. These factors include the environment, level of supervision, pay, etc. Motivators are factors that cause added satisfaction if present in a workplace but do not lower satisfaction levels among employees if not present. These factors include sense of achievement, recognition of abilities, nature of the job, etc.

3. McClelland's Theory of Needs (Net MBA, 2010)

David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be ...

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Theories and Changes in the Health Field

I need help with the attached to add toward changes in the health field that would apply towards each of the 3 theories. I have those theories and instructions in the attachment.

The name of each theoretical model is listed below. I just need help with a description of the type of change situation in the health field where each theoretical model best applies. I need at least a paragraph or two for each change model for each theory.

Goal Setting Theory- Gary Latham and Edwin Locke (1983).
Setting the goal-
Should have two main characteristics which are
1. The goals should be specific and measurable.
2. The goal should be challenging yet attainable.
Determining goals for an employee
1. Use time and motion studies to set appropriate goal levels.
2. Setting future goal levels based on past performance levels.
3. Allow employee to jointly set goal.
4. Determining goals by external forces.
5. Determine long-term goals as determined by organizations Board of Trustees.
Obtaining the goals.
1. Managers need to make sure that employees remain committed to goals.
2. Appropriate pay and incentives.
3. Reinforcement to receive satisfaction for reaching goals.
4. Reinforcement acceptance for future goals.
Resisting goals
1. Perception of themselves not being able to obtain goals.
2. Need for training.
3. No relationship between personal benefits and goals.
Providing Support Elements.
1. Adequate resources provided
2. Company policies and procedures must not create barriers.
3. Employees must trust managers that are supportive.
4. Action plan must be provided with agreed upon goals.
5. Employee must have access to the status of their goals.
Expectancy Theory-Victor Vroom (1964)
For managers the Expectancy Theory is very useful as it helps to understand a worker's behavior and why they would lack in motivation.
VIE Theory
Valence- Strength of an individual's want, need, or dislike, for a particular outcome.
Instrumentality- An individual's perception that his or her performance is related to other outcomes, which are either negative or positive.
Expectancy- Individual's perception that their effort will positively influence their performance.
Newsom (1990) summary of Expectancy Theory
The Nine C's
1. Challenge- How hard the employee has to work for a job well done.
2. Criteria- Making sure to communicate to the employee the difference between good and bad performance.
3. Compensation-Does the outcomes associated with good performance reward the employee?
4. Capability-Employees' ability to perform well.
5. Confidence- Does the employee believe they can perform well enough?
6. Credibility- Does the employee have the confidence in the managers to deliver what is promised?
7. Consistency- Other employees receive similar outcomes for good performance and others receive less for bad performance.
8. Cost- The cost of employee's time and effort to perform well.
9. Communication- Does management communicate well enough to work with the other C's?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs-Maslow (1954)
According to Maslow, humans have five needs and are driven to fulfill those needs.
1. Physiological- hunger /thirst.
2. Safety- security
3. Love and Belonging
4. Self-esteem
5. Self actualization
Maslow states how to satisfy these basic needs in employees:
1. Physiological is adequate salary and working conditions.
2. Safety needs would be in job security, security for the future such as retirement, medical plans, and a safe working environment.
3. Love and belonging (affiliation needs)- positive interactions with co-workers and managers.
4. Self-Esteem needs- Recognition, promotions, decision making.
5. Self-Actualization-Self fulfillment from job, autonomy, ability to create and demonstrate innovation in challenging tasks.

Provide a description of the type of change situation in the health field where each theoretical model best applies.

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