The final research paper will synthesize theoretical frameworks and the impact of ethics and law on the healthcare industry. Also, this paper will focus on the historical aspect of medical experimentation and research and the involvement of marginalized populations and their ethical implications for the healthcare industry. For example, you can select a medical experiment, such as the Nazi War Crimes, the Eugenics Project, or the Mississippi Appendectomy and discuss the lack of IRB approval or signed consent. History has demonstrated that there have been many atrocities perpetuated on marginalized individuals in the medical community. Your research should focus on the impact that untoward events have had on health outcomes. You CANNOT write your research paper solely on the Tuskegee Experiment, you may however reference the Tuskegee Experiment. Your research should demonstrate a comprehensive view of law and ethics in the healthcare industry.
(The latest edition of the APA format for essays is described here: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
This is a general outline with a lot of original thinking in it. It is based on the directions that you provided, which was turned into a rubric. If you notice, the numbered subheadings are actually made from those directions, so that your final paper contains something from every required component.
Paragraphs that have quotations are actually direct quotes from the reference mentioned. If you see a / before the paragraph, that represents original thinking and/or a rewording of the information found in the reference.
I have at least one reference in each subheading except the conclusion. If you are going to use the reference, just put it at the end of your paper in a Reference section, and delete the quote, or put it somewhere else, if you want to use something else from it. There is a lot of information here, and for your convenience, I attached several of the PDF files for you to refer to.)
Ethics And Law On The Healthcare Industry
1)Theoretical Frameworks of Ethics
/In order to use the best legal and ethical practices that apply to healthcare research programs, the practitioner must be familiar with the agreement guidelines that specify the precise way in which such a program must be outlined, in order to be in compliance with
federal mandates. An important part of the guidelines is to define who the stakeholders are, which mean those who will benefit most
from the results of the program's experimental data and results. One of those stakeholders is the group of human patients or research subjects involved. Their rights to maintain their health and ability to consent must be maintained, through "safeguards are in place to protect human subjects and, where appropriate, what ethical (e.g., institutional review board) or administrative (e.g., paperwork reduction)
approvals" that have to be obtained.
"Agreements. Agreements summarize the procedures and clarify roles and responsibilities among those who will execute the evaluation
plan (6,12). Agreements describe how the evaluation plan will be implemented by using available resources (e.g., money, personnel,
time, and information) (36,37). Agreements also state what safeguards are in place to protect human subjects and, where appropriate,
what ethical (e.g., institutional review board) or administrative (e.g., paperwork reduction) approvals have been obtained (59,60).
Elements of an agreement include statements concerning the intended purpose, users, uses, questions, and methods, as well as a
summary of the deliverables, time line, and budget. The agreement can include all engaged stakeholders but, at a minimum, it must
involve the primary users, any providers of financial or in-kind resources, and those persons who will conduct the evaluation and
facilitate its use and dissemination. The formality of an agreement might vary depending on existing stakeholder relationships. An
agreement might be a legal contract, a detailed protocol, or a memorandum of understanding.
Creating an explicit agreement verifies the mutual understanding needed for a successful evaluation. It also provides a basis for
modifying or renegotiating procedures if necessary.
Various activities reflect the requirement to focus the evaluation design Both supporters and skeptics of the program could
be consulted to ensure that the proposed evaluation questions are politically viable (i.e., responsive to the varied positions of
interest groups). A menu of potential evaluation uses appropriate for the program's stage of development and context could be
circulated among stakeholders to determine which is most compelling. Interviews could be held with specific intended users to better
understand their information needs and time line for action. Resource requirements could be reduced when users are willing to employ
more timely but less precise evaluation methods."
Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health September 17, 1999 48(RR11);1-40 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR),
Centers For Disease Control
2)The Impact of Ethics on the Healthcare Industry
"Five Top Ethical Issues in Healthcare
When members of Congress and the president recently failed to come to terms that would avoid the sequester, many
people expressed concern over how the resulting budget cuts will affect medical research and other aspects of healthcare. Some
questioned the ethics of an action that could have such a potentially devastating effect on healthcare in the future.
But ethical issues in healthcare are common. Nearly every decision that's made has ethical implications--for patients, for providers
and for healthcare leaders.
Which issues impact hospital administrators and clinical leaders the most? Healthcare Briefings spoke to a panel of experts to get
their view of the top ethical challenges in healthcare that are facing today's leaders:
1. Balancing care quality and efficiency
Many of the challenges facing the healthcare system in the future will be related to the overall challenge of balancing quality and
safety with efficiency, said Cynda Hylton Rushton PhD, RN, the new Anne and George L. Bunting Professor of Clinical Ethics at Johns
Hopkins University. "It raises a real question about whether the right values are driving our focus in our healthcare system," she said. "Should
efficiency be the driver?"
2. Improving access to care
Although the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was mostly left untouched by the sequester, the ongoing issue of providing everyone with
access to basic medical care remains a concern.
Philip Rosoff, MD, director of clinical ethics for Duke Hospital and Duke University School of Medicine, sees this lack of access as
the country's biggest ethical issue.
"It's shameful," he said. "All the other stuff pales in comparison."
Gerard Magill, PhD, professor with the Center for Healthcare Ethics at Duquesne University, notes that there are still questions
about the implementation of the healthcare reform law, as well as Medicaid expansion efforts in the states. Most ethicists believe
that access to basic care is a hallmark of a civilized society, he said, and if many people still do not have access, "that is a
3. Building and sustaining the healthcare workforce of the future
As the baby boomer generation continues to age, more healthcare professionals will be needed to take care of this population--to
manage chronic illnesses, coordinate care and provide many other services. But will there be enough competent, compassionate people
who not only enter the healthcare workforce but remain in it to provide that care?
Despite a recent influx of younger people into the nursing profession, for instance, many experts are forecasting a resurgence of the
nursing shortage by the end of this decade--just when more nurses will be needed.
"This is not just a supply issue," said Rushton. "This is a sustainability issue. And one of the real threats to keeping the people
we train in practice is having an ethical practice environment where they can actually practice with integrity, and where they are
not constantly barraged with morally distressing situations that burn them out."
4. Addressing end-of-life issues
Nancy Berlinger, PhD, a research scholar with the Hastings ...
This is a description of some of the legal systems and theoretical structures that have developed which have shaped and changed the ethical treatment of healthcare patients and subjects of medical experimentation.