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    Article Critique of "Ten Ways to Be A Better Leader"
    Article Critique of "Listen To the Voice of Reason: Communication Is Key to Successful Organizational Change"

    Write your critiques in APA format. Identify your author and title as part of the introduction to your topic; this should not be considered a reference for the article. Begin with an introduction that defines the subject of your critique and the author's point of view. Defend your point of view by raising specific issues or aspects of the argument. Conclude each critique by summarizing your argument and re-emphasizing your opinion.

    1. You will first need to identify and explain the author's ideas. Include specific passages that support your description of the author's point of view.
    2. Offer your own opinion. Explain what you think about the argument. Describe several points with that you agree or disagree with.
    3. For each of the points you mention, include specific passages from the articles (you may summarize, quote, or paraphrase) that provide evidence for your point of view.
    4. Explain how the passages from the articles support your opinion

    Article 1
    Title:Ten ways to be a better leader
    Source:Ophthalmology Times. 38.8 (Apr. 15, 2013): p34.
    Document Type:Article
    Copyright : COPYRIGHT 2013 Advanstar Communications, Inc.
    Full Text:
    EUGENE, OR ::

    LEADERSHIP IS THE ART of engaging the hearts and minds of others to help them shape the future, said Robert Taylor, MD, professor emeritus of the Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University's School of Medicine.

    And their future is shaped by those who believe in the vision of the leader. Dr. Taylor said leadership is the opposite of reading a book. You plan the ending first, then do everything you can to get there.

    Although most physicians were never trained on how to become effective leaders, it is an art and skill that can be learned, Dr. Taylor said.

    Dr. Taylor outlined 10 ways to help physicians cultivate their leadership skills, including:

    1. DEFINE A VISION. Good leaders not only have a compelling vision, he said. They "will not rest until that vision becomes a reality."

    2. SHARE THIS VISION. "Leadership is not passive, it is an active activity," Dr. Taylor added. "Persuade others to join the quest."

    3. RECOGNIZE YOUR LEADERSHIP STYLE. There are six styles of leadership, including autocratic, dictatorial, facilitative, bureaucratic, parental and charismatic. Which style are you?

    4. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT. Leaders have a vision, and managers carry out the vision. Leaders do the right thing; managers do things right. Both are important concepts, Dr. Taylor said, but they are clearly different.

    5. LEARN AND PLAY BY THE RULES, Although you don't have to think by the rules, Dr. Taylor called them "the scar tissue of past errors." And it is very important to learn from past mistakes.

    6. EARN THE TRUST OF THOSE YOU LEAD. Make rational, mission-based decisions, reconcile your vision with your values, and guard your credibility, Dr. Taylor said.

    7. RECOGNIZE THE POWER OF LEADERSHIP. "Margaret Thatcher said, "Being in power is like being a lady. If you have to tell them you are, you aren't.'" Power is being at the table. Power is being able to control what happens to others. Use power sparingly, and share power appropriately and progressively, Dr. Taylor added.

    8. ACT LIKE A LEADER. If you are chosen to lead, then play the part. Leaders not only model the behavior, they set the example.

    9. TURN FOLLOWERS INTO LEADERS. Empowering your staff to make decisions is an excellent leadership trait, Dr. Taylor said. And when you see staff making a sound decision, acknowledge it.

    10. MAINTAIN BALANCE IN YOUR LIFE. Turn work into play, and play hard.

    "Good leaders effect change," Dr. Taylor said. "The best leaders leave behind the will to pursue the dream."

    Medicine is in a time of great transition, Dr. Taylor added. Sound leadership will be more important for practices to thrive in a competitive and rapidly changing health-care environment over the next few years.

    From Staff Reports

    Article 2
    Title:Listen to the voice of reason: communication is key to successful organizational change
    Author(s):Kimberly Bonvissuto
    Source:Ophthalmology Times. 32.8 (Apr. 15, 2007): p91.
    Document Type:Article
    Copyright : COPYRIGHT 2007 Advanstar Communications, Inc.
    Full Text:
    Las Vegas -- Introducing change to an office environment always triggers a reaction, but two things are certain: the reaction is very individual and can be predictable.

    Knowing the personality types in an office can give management an advantage in effectively promoting change, according to Russell J. Igoe, ABOM, NCLC, who gave his insights on strategies for anticipating employee reactions during the presentation "Effective change communication: strategies and tools for success" here at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Igoe is director-Eye Care Services, Group Health Cooperative, Tukwila, WA.

    Research shows that the coping mechanisms people use to process change are similar to the grieving process, he said. Feelings of loss and fear come into play as people see things they are emotionally attached to--for example, the location of a workstation or the predictability of certain aspects of the day--taken away.

    Primary motivators

    Understanding the different motivations of diverse employees, acknowledging a perceived loss, and sympathizing with their feelings goes a long way in moving from fear to action, Igoe said. During times of stress, people tend to gravitate to one primary area.

    Igoe groups the primary personality motivators into categories:

    Autonomists prefer to work independently, like to push the envelope, avoid shared activities, and abhor meetings. They may appear antisocial or uncooperative and uncommunicative. They do best when they are allowed to set their own goals, exercise their creativity, and are involved in brainstorming.

    Balancers tend to be Generation Xers. They work to earn enough money to play. They enjoy each day being different from the day before; routine is a stressor.

    Balancers have a wide variety of interests and prefer not to work overtime or weekends. They may be seen as clockwatchers who lack dedication and a work ethic.

    Balancers feel satisfied when their outside interests are acknowledged. They can bring objectivity and perspective to a team setting.

    High achievers are competitive, have a strong desire to excel, and set their own goals. They can suffer from burnout, are generally impatient, and are frustrated by perceived administrative inefficiencies. Their needs are satisfied when they receive positive feedback tied to a specific outcome or personal objective. They measure success by achieving a target.

    Influencers like leadership roles and spending time with decision-makers. They may appear to be political or manipulative to others and may flaunt outward symbols, such as status or titles. Influencers can cause a great deal of friction on a team. They believe their needs are satisfied when they are given credit for an idea.

    Relationships are motivated primarily by a happy workplace. They tend to be friendly, extroverted, and build rapport easily. They enjoy organizing social activities and like harmony. They may focus on a harmonious workplace at the expense of getting work done. They may be seen as lacking focus. They believe their needs are met by learning new skills and interacting with others. Relationships tend to be good trainers.

    Security seekers like predictability and tend to be late-career people. They crave information and are described as dependable, but they have difficulty with change and may require individual attention during times of change. They prefer a slow, steady approach to change, with concrete goals.

    Team dynamics

    No matter what the mix of people on a team, a guiding coalition is a necessity, Igoe said. Having people in place to act as guides and provide vision is important. To that end, Igoe recommended creating a vision or mission statement, which can serve as a beacon to reassure everyone on the team that there is a goal, a purpose for the changes. A mission statement also provides a consistent message.

    Organizing a "change team" will help lead people to a new place and allow change to happen, he said. Be creative in who is invited to be on the change team. Look outside and bring in outside vendors or members of other teams to offer a fresh perspective.

    "Physician involvement is critical to the point of nothing happens at our place unless there is physician leadership involved" Igoe said. He added that physician involvement will require a lot of back-and-forth discussions and several presentations to bring the physicians on board. Develop tension to prevent people from becoming comfortable with the status quo, Igoe said. Tension involves looking at a problem and challenging everyone to make a difference.

    He also advised addressing resistance, noting that some employees won't see the problem right away; they will need to be drawn into the conversation and given space to talk about their own issues.

    "Ask 'why' five times to get to the heart of the problem," Igoe said. "Sit down and slow down with people who put up resistance. You may find you're going back into those [personality] categories."

    Effective communication, he said, is aided in times of change by "cranking it up." He suggested doubling communication efforts and focusing on the future or the end result of the change.

    "Keep communication [focused] on where you're going to be in 6 months, where you're going to be next week, where you're going to be tomorrow," Igoe said. "Break it down. Sell the problem, not the solution."

    It's important to identify who is losing what and single out the primary motivations of people to gauge their response to change, Igoe advised. He suggested listening and letting people vent. Give them time to grieve, and then help them through the change process according to their needs.

    The most important point, Igoe said, is to focus on communication. In a study of several companies over a 3-month period, communication in the form of emails, memos, voice mails, and other media told a story. Half of 1% of the information was directly related to the company vision. The rest was information overload.

    "Find a way to cut away some of that," he said. "Do work that fits with the vision. Say 'no' to the rest."

    Focal Point

    In a Study of communication at several companies, half of 1% of the information was directly related to the company vision. The rest was information overload.

    Take-Home Message

    Understanding diverse motivations and personalities, acknowledging a perceived loss, and sympathizing with feelings can give management an advantage in effectively promoting change in an office environment. The most important tool, however, is focusing on communication among the team by, for instance, creating a mission or vision statement to ensure a consistent message focused on the future.

    Bonvissuto, Kimberly

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 10, 2019, 7:15 am ad1c9bdddf

    Solution Preview


    Hope you are well.

    Article 1:

    1. You will first need to identify and explain the author's ideas. Include specific passages that support your description of the author's point of view.

    Keep in mind, the article title and beginning paragraph provides insight to the author's ideas and purpose for writing the research article. In the example of article one, the author's main objective is highlighting the art form of leadership. Thus, the ten steps or strategies for effective leadership, particular, in the physician field within the medical healthcare industry. Try and highlight the first part of the opening sentences within the article as supportive verbiage to state the leadership as an art form to engaging physicians in viewing their role in a different light.

    2. Offer your own opinion. Explain what you think about the argument. Describe several points with that you agree or disagree with.

    Depending on the individual own opinion, the main argument entails the strategy approach to demonstrate leadership in an effective way or refrain towards the same own practice. The author ideas on building awareness as a method to accomplishing a workable environment built on motivation and support entails the physical in a more proactive role. Thus, in the final write up, the decision to ...

    Solution Summary

    The review into conducting an article business review for the purpose of understanding the author's core point of reason to enlighten the reader.