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Annotated Bibliography - American Psychological Association

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1. I need help preparing an annotated bibliography in American Psychological Association (APA) format. Topic: Any topic regarding Organization Development and Change

2. It has to be a critical/evaluative annotated bibliography. Once citations have been made in APA format I have to address the following points in my individual entries:

? Main focus or purpose of the work
? Intended audience for the work
? Usefulness or relevance to my research topic (or why it did not meet my expectations)
? Special features of the work that was unique or helpful
? Background and credibility of the author
? Conclusions or observations reached by the author
? Conclusions or observations reached by you

3. A minimum of 10 articles

ABI/Inform and Proquest are recommended databases to find articles

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Thompson, T., Purdy, J. & Summers, D. (2008). A Five factor framework for coaching middle managers. Organization Development Journal, 26 (3), 63-71.
The article discusses a five factor framework to understand the work of middle managers based on who they interact with and the purpose of that interaction. The article is a result of the authors' research and is aimed to help middle managers coaches to be more effective and efficient. Moreover, the article is also important for human resource managers and practitioners in designing coaching and training courses for middle managers.

The unique feature of the authors' work is that they based their five factor model based on established knowledge made by other researchers. The concepts comprising the model are not unique to the authors.

All authors are well versed in organizational development and change as all of them are academicians and teach the subject.
The authors concluded, which I agree with, that "[a] major concern of those seeking coaching services is the lack of structure and consistency in coaching" (Thompson, Purdy & Summers, 2008, p. 70).

Gibbons, P. (1992). Impacts of Organizational Evolution on Leadership Roles and Behaviors. Human Relations, 45 (1), 1-18.
Patrick Gibbons (1992) attempted to reconcile the strategic choice and the environmental determinism views of organizational adaptation to change with top level management and aspiring corporate leaders as the intended audience. The topic and the article are relevant in spite of the fact that it was written more than 15 years ago. Organization and human resource evolution still impacts the roles and behaviors leaders have.

Truly, the strategic choices that a firm makes and the environmental determinism views of organizational adaptations are further proof that organizations do not operate in a vacuum and that more often than not; their actions are determined and significantly affected by external factors. However, Gibbons (1992) emphasized that one of the key success factors in organizational change is "the ability of the leader to identify and initiate change" (p. 18).

Lastly, the author wrote the article while he was earning his doctoral degree in Strategic Planning and Policy at the University of Pittsburgh.

Ryan, N., Williams, T., Charles, M. & Waterhouse, J. (2008). Top-down organizational change in an Australian Government agency. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 21 (1), 26.
According to the authors, the purpose of the paper is "to assist public sector organizations to carry out better change management strategies and thus achieve better change processes and also to provide a critique of top-down change strategies, especially when employed by public sector agencies" (Ryan, Williams, Charles & Waterhouse, 2008, p. 26). Although the paper was intended for public sector leaders and mangers, I believe that the private sectors can also learn a thing or two.

What is interesting and unique about this article is it tackles organizational development and change management for the public sector. To be honest never before this article was I involved in the analysis of public sector human resource management concepts. Another special feature is that the ...

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The solution provides an annotated bibliography for the American Psychological Association. The main purpose of the work is determined.

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Annotated Bibliography in APA format

Prepare an annotated bibliography in APA format with 5 to 7 sources from your research in preparation for providing testimony below:
My research information is below:

The system for the mentally ill consists of a health care system that often does not see its "patients" as consumers. In a system where the mentally ill are afforded the same privileges as anyone else with a health care problem that has a strong insurance plan - the mentally ill would be treated better in the American system. Yes, the public does not want higher taxes. However mental health care should also be available for those who cannot afford it. Many programs do exist in America that could help mentally ill people who are in denial or not seeking treatment.

Public outreach programs can address a spread of knowledge to make people aware whether they are literate or not to the kinds of resources that are available. But when it comes to our mentally ill patients the funds are not as readily available if they are poor. Americans do have a fundamental right to quality mental health care even if they can't afford it.

When it comes to comparing some famous specific programs that are historically and currently available to the rich - the Betty Ford Clinic comes to mind. This higher end addiction and health care centre was instrumental in changing the former first lady's way of life and re-establishing her "clean and sober" into the mainstream. Famous specific programs that are historically and currently available to the poor are hard to come up with in America. However, there is an organization called the Canadian Health and Mental Addiction organization that fairly recently received huge funding dollars from the province of Ontario. The mental health centre located on Queen Street in Toronto was completely renovated and branches exist in various parts of the downtown core. One of the many programs they have include film festivals about mental illness and art shows about mental illness where the mentally ill have an opportunity to express themselves and showcase their talents to a wider audience. These film festivals and art shows, as just two examples, have proven to be extremely successful in highlighting the added benefit persons with a mental illness bring to society

People with mental illnesses everywhere should be a more special or particular population than individuals with physical ailments, due to the fact that many physical ailments can be treated, or don't cause the individual to necessarily be totally incapacitated, unless they are debilitating to the point of inhibiting an individual's ability to physically function. Mental illnesses usually impaired an individual's overall ability to function and interact effectively within society, and mental illnesses are also illnesses that are very difficult to treat, with some having no known cure, which makes it imperative that these individuals receive special attention.

The treatment of mental illness was moved from large state-owned institutions to the community, due to the fact that these institutions seem to exacerbate some illnesses due to the confining aspect of these institutions. In addition, newer theories on mental illness treatment advocated the belief that these individuals would improve much more rapidly when receiving their treatment in conjunction with community interaction. This movement has been quite successful, due to the ability of many patients to function on their own, after receiving treatment in conjunction with increasing levels of community interaction.

Improving the level of education that individuals in society receive concerning mental illness, can go a long way in reducing the stigmatism that is attached to mental illness. In addition, it would also be helpful to inform society at large that approximate 30% of individuals within society suffer from varying degrees of various mental illnesses, which lets them know that this is much more widespread than commonly thought. Increased awareness about the causes and treatments available for mental illness will also eliminate much of the stigmatism that is commensurate with society's ideas about mental illness.

The National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI) reported that "over the last two years, 10 states are considered to have made the deepest cuts in mental health care" and Indiana being one of them on the list (NAMI, 2010). Cutting costs may be a temporary fix but a long term difficulty for those in need of mental health services. Indiana is facing the challenge of balancing budget cuts with providing mental health services throughout the state. Through hitting Indiana with freezing block grants shows the lack of priority for mental health services in the state. Through this current economic state we are in there is an understanding that budget cuts are going to happen, however, the need for mental health services should be a priority as many may need these services.

The different models of health care delivery systems, or managed-care, all have a common mission of providing the highest level of health services possible to the greatest number of individuals possible, in an efficient and effective manner. All of these different models also seek to allocate the use of the most proficient and well-trained health services staff possible, in order to ensure that their patients continuously receive a high standard of care. The different models of managed-care have the common goal of adopting their methodology to the needs of the situation, and or their clients that particular time.

One advantage of a managed-care system is the fact that this health care delivery system, can expeditiously provide the services that are needed to a large variety of individuals that are covered by a plethora of different insurance policies, without having to ascertain as to whether or not an individual can afford the care that they will be receiving. A major limitation of and managed-care system, is the fact that many individuals that don't have adequate health insurance may not be able to receive the services that they are in need of, due to the fact that they will have to save funds in order to receive their services.

A challenge to measuring the quality of care that a patient receives, is ascertaining the effect that the care that the individual received had on a present health the condition that the individual was suffering from, in a statistically significant manner. It is also difficult to adequately measure the preventative effect that certain medical procedures have on an individual's long-term health and well-being. The fact that many medical records are confidential makes it difficult to analyze the effects of these procedures on a patient.

The federal initiative to expand Medicaid coverage to nearly 16,000,000 additional Americans, through government subsidizing of insurance coverage for needy individuals, ensures that more individuals receive quality medical care. The government has also engaged in an initiative in which the reporting of the quality level of services within America's nursing homes will be made public, and the same measure will be in effect for hospitals and other health care facilities. The government has exponentially increased the level of funding for medical research that seeks to find the cures for cancer, and other catastrophic ailments.

All of the information above was developed from the following sources:

Richard Saul Urman, (2004). Understanding Health Care. Top publishing

Stephen Jonas, (2007). An Introduction to the US Health care System. Springer Publishing Company.

Avery, George H.; Wadsworth, Shelley M. MacDermid. (2011). Access to Mental Health Services for Active Duty and National Guard TRICARE enrollees in Indiana. Military Medicine, Vol 176(3), Mar, 2011. pp. 261-264.

Kroenke, Kurt; Wu, Jingwei; Bair, Matthew J.; Krebs, Erin E.; Damush, Teresa M.; Tu, Wanzhu. (2011). Reciprocal Relationship between pain and depression: A 12-month longitudinal analysis in primary care. The Journal of Pain, Vol 12(9), Sep, 2011. pp. 964-973.

The National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI). Election 2010: NAMI Lists Top 10 States Hurt by Mental Health Budget Cuts: Are Candidates Addressing the Facts? NAMI Newsroom. (Sept. 2010). http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=press_room&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=107293

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