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Directed Methods Analysis of Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2012). Change agents, networks and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 381-398.

Read the assigned article (above) and answer the following questions. Although you certainly may use additional text-based sources to assist you, the information that you need to be able to answer these questions can be obtained from your course readings (Critical Thinking, 2nd edition, by Alec Fisher) and your own critical thinking skills.

Your answers must be in your own words. "Cutting and pasting" material from the article will be considered non-responsive and result in no credit for that answer. Please number each response.

In your answer, if you refer to any text from the assigned article directly, please be sure to reference it appropriately.

1. Was this article published in a recognized scholarly journal? And what is your evidence for or against?

2. What is the purpose of the article? Do the authors achieve their purpose? Provide evidence for your judgment.

3. Is there a gap in the field of literature that is addressed by this study? If so, what is that gap? How does this study address the gap?

4. Is the research method (study design) appropriate for answering the authors' research question? Provide evidence for your judgment.

5. In your own words, why do the authors conduct the study using both quantitative and qualitative methods? Provide an example of one qualitative data collection method and one quantitative data collection method the authors used in the study. Do you think the use of both methods supported the findings of the study? Why or why not?

6. In what way do the quantitative measures used in this study answer the proposed research question?

7. What is the population of interest in the combined studies? Do you think the sample used is a good representation of that population? Why or why not?

8. Was the selection of cases based on external, objective and validated criteria? Why?

9. Are objective and validated measurement methods used to measure the outcome in this study? If not, was the outcome assessed by someone who was unaware of the group assignment (i.e. was the assessor blinded)?

10. Could there be confounding factors in the findings of this study that haven't been accounted for by the authors? If so, what are those factors?

11. Table 2 presents the correlation matrix for the variables used to assess change agents in this study.

(a) List all of the statistically significant correlations.
(b) Choose one of the statistically significant outcomes and describe in your own words what this outcome means in relation to the study.

12. Tables 3 and 4 present five multiple regression models intended to test how well certain variables predict degree of change divergence (Table 3) and degree of change adoption (Table 4).

(a) What is the difference between Model 3, Model 4, and Model 5?
(b) Why is it necessary to run three models?
(c) What outcome does Model 4 predict? How do you know this?

13. Give two specific examples of how the researchers used qualitative data to illustrate the quantitative data. How does the authors' use of these examples support the research findings? [3 points]

14. In this study, the researchers administered a telephone survey to measure the level of change adoption.

a. At what level of measurement were the scale items measured?
b. What would a "4" on the item "How far did you progress toward completing the change project" mean?
c. What would a "4" on the item "In my view, the change was not adopted in the organization" mean?
d. Give one example of how the researchers validated their measurements of change adoption.

15. Having slowly and carefully read the Method and Results section of this article, thoughtfully and cogently explain the role of the data that the authors collected and analyzed in helping them advance an argument about change agents and their influence on initiation and adoption of change in organizations.

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1. This article was published in a recognized scholarly journal. The evidence is that the article was published in the "Academy of Management Journal" on April 1, 2009, Vol. 55 no. 2 on pages 381 - 398. AMJ is a recognized scholarly journal.
2. The purpose of the authors is to show that a low level of structural closure in a change agent's network aids the initiation and adoption of changes that diverge from institutional status quo. This purpose is achieved by the authors. The evidence is that both quantitative data and qualitative data collected support this contention. The results of the study show that the effects of structural holes on changes agent's ability to persuade organizational constituencies to adopt a change are strictly contingent on the change's degree of divergence from the institutional status quo.
3. The gap is that studies have researched the effect of network closure on actors' capability to implement new ideas, but have got contradictory results. Some studies show high levels and other show low levels of network closure to encourage change adoption. This study addresses the gap by developing a contingency theory of role of network closure for beginning and acceptance of organizational change.
4. The study design is appropriate for the author's research questions. Longitudinal survey data is appropriate because it captures the change in responses over a period of time. Further, it provides data that can be statistically analyzed. This data is supplemented with eight in depth case studies. The case study method provides a descriptive and explanatory analysis of events. Organizational change initiatives are studied. The author's research question is that information and control benefits of structural holes take different forms in change initiation when compared to change adoption, and these benefits are dependent on the degree to which the change diverges from institutional status quo in the organization's field of activity. The design of the study is appropriate for the question of the researchers.
5. The authors conduct the study using both quantitative and qualitative methods so that the qualitative methods verify the consistency of the responses of the change agents with information provided by other organization members. The use of qualitative methods in this manner provides a validation of the ...

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The response provides you a structured explanation of an article that describes Directed Methods Analysis . It also gives you the relevant references.

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Cost Accounting Questions and 3 Cost Analysis Problems

1. Cost of goods manufactured during a period is obtained by taking the total manufacturing costs incurred during the period, adding, and subtracting the following inventories:
Adding Subtracting
a. Beginning finished goods inventory Ending finished goods inventory
b. Beginning work in process inventory Ending finished goods inventory
c. Beginning raw materials inventory Ending work in process inventory
d. Beginning work in process inventory Ending work in process inventory

2. Cost of goods sold is equal to
a. total manufacturing costs plus beginning work in process less ending work in process.
b. cost of goods sold plus beginning work in process less ending work in process.
c. total manufacturing costs plus ending work in process less beginning work in process.
d. cost of goods manufactured plus beginning finished goods less ending finished goods.

3. Inventory accounts for a manufacturer consist of
a. direct materials, work in process, and finished goods.
b. direct labor, work in process, and finished goods.
c. manufacturing overhead, direct materials, and direct labor.
d. work in process, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

4. In a process cost system, equivalent units of production are the
a. work done on physical units expressed in fully completed units.
b. units that are transferred to the next processing department.
c. units completed and transferred to finished goods.
d. units that are incomplete at the end of a period.

Use the following information for questions 5 and 6.

In the month of November, a department had 500 units in the beginning work in process inventory that were 60% complete. These units had $8,000 of materials cost and $6,000 of conversion costs. Materials are added at the beginning of the process and conversion costs are added uniformly throughout the process. During November, 10,000 units were completed and transferred to the finished goods inventory and there were 2,000 units that were 25% complete in the ending work in process inventory on April 30. During November, manufacturing costs charged to the department were: Materials $184,000; Conversion costs $204,000.

5. The cost assigned to the units transferred to finished goods during November was
a. $360,000.
b. $362,000.
c. $376,000.
d. $358,000.

6. The cost assigned to the units in the ending work in process inventory on November 30 was
a. $72,000.
b. $42,000.
c. $32,000.
d. $58,000.

7. An appropriate cost driver for ordering and receiving materials cost is the
a. direct labor hours.
b. machine hours.
c. number of parts.
d. number of purchases orders.

8. Benefits of activity-based costing include all of the following except
a. more accurate product costing.
b. fewer cost pools used to assign overhead costs to products.
c. enhanced control over overhead costs.
d. better management decisions.

9. An example of a value-added activity in a manufacturing operation is
a. machine repair.
b. inventory control.
c. engineering design.
d. building maintenance.

10. Assigning manufacturing costs to work in process results in credits to all of the following accounts except
a. Factory Labor.
b. Manufacturing Overhead.
c. Raw Materials Inventory.
d. Work in Process Inventory.

11. Juniper, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Juniper's break even point?

a. 4,600 units
b. $25,600
c. 6,200 units
d. 2,133 units

12. Homer Company's variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
a. $18,000
b. $6,000
c. $12,000
d . $12,000

13. Twix Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should Twix push to customers?
a. Beer
b. Wine
c. Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
d. It should sell an equal quantity of both.

14. Monroe Company manufactures a product with a unit variable cost of $42 and a unit sales price of $75. Fixed manufacturing costs were $80,000 when 10,000 units were produced and sold, equating to $8 per unit. The company has a one-time opportunity to sell an additional 1,000 units at $55 each in an international market which would not affect its present sales. The company has sufficient capacity to produce the additional units. How much is the relevant income effect of accepting the special order?
a. $42,000
b. $5,000
c. $50,000
d. $13,000

15. Beavers, Inc. is unsure of whether to sell its product assembled or unassembled. The unit cost of the unassembled product is $16, while the cost of assembling each unit is estimated at $17. Unassembled units can be sold for $55, while assembled units could be sold for $71 per unit. What decision should Beavers make?
a. Sell before assembly, the company will save $1 per unit.
b. Sell before assembly, the company will save $15 per unit.
c. Process further, the company will save $1 per unit.
d. Process further, the company will save $16 per unit.

16. Lion Company sells office chairs with a selling price of $25 and a contribution margin per unit of $15. It takes 3 machine hours to produce one chair. How much is the contribution margin per unit of limited resource?
a. $5
b. $3.33
c. $45
d. $10

Use the following information for items 17 -19.

Dustin Company sells its product for $40 per unit. During 2005, it produced 60,000 units and sold 50,000 units (there was no beginning inventory). Costs per unit are: direct materials $10, direct labor $6, and variable overhead $2. Fixed costs are: $480,000 manufacturing overhead, and $60,000 selling and administrative expenses.

17. The per unit manufacturing cost under absorption costing is:
a. $16.
b. $18.
c. $26.
d. $27.

18. The per unit manufacturing cost under variable costing is:
a. $16.
b. $18.
c. $26.
d. $27.

19. Cost of goods sold under absorption costing is:
a. $ 900,000.
b. $1,080,000.
c. $1,300,000.
d. $1,560,000.

20. A company developed the following per-unit standards for its product: 2 pounds of direct materials at $6 per pound. Last month, 2,000 pounds of direct materials were purchased for $11,400. The direct materials price variance for last month was
a. $11,400 favorable.
b. $600 favorable.
c. $300 favorable.
d. $600 unfavorable.

21. The per-unit standards for direct materials are 2 gallons at $4 per gallon. Last month, 11,200 gallons of direct materials that actually cost $42,400 were used to produce 6,000 units of product. The direct materials quantity variance for last month was
a. $3,200 favorable.
b. $2,400 favorable.
c. $3,200 unfavorable.
d. $5,600 unfavorable.

22. The per-unit standards for direct labor are 2 direct labor hours at $12 per hour. If in producing 2,400 units, the actual direct labor cost was $51,200 for 4,000 direct labor hours worked, the total direct labor variance is
a. $1,920 unfavorable.
b. $6,400 favorable.
c. $4,000 unfavorable.
d. $6,400 unfavorable.

23. The standard rate of pay is $5 per direct labor hour. If the actual direct labor payroll was $19,600 for 4,000 direct labor hours worked, the direct labor price (rate) variance is
a. $800 unfavorable.
b. $800 favorable.
c. $1,000 unfavorable.
d. $400 favorable.

24. The standard number of hours that should have been worked for the output attained is 8,000 direct labor hours and the actual number of direct labor hours worked was 8,400. If the direct labor price variance was $8,400 unfavorable, and the standard rate of pay was $18 per direct labor hour, what was the actual rate of pay for direct labor?
a. $17.00 per direct labor hour
b. $15.00 per direct labor hour
c. $19.00 per direct labor hour
d. $18.00 per direct labor hour

Problem 1 - Activity-Based Costing (16 points)

Tuttle Manufacturing Company manufactures two products: radiators and gas tanks. During June, 200 radiators and 400 gas tanks were produced and overhead costs of $54,000 were incurred. The following information related to overhead costs was available:

Activity Cost Driver Total Cost
Materials handling Number of requisitions $24,000
Machine setups Number of setups 18,000
Quality inspections Number of inspections 20,000

The cost driver volume for each product was as follows:

Cost Driver Radiators Gas Tanks Total
Number of requisitions 300 500 800
Number of setups 140 220 360
Number of inspections 190 310 500

Instructions
a) Compute the overhead rate for each activity.
b) Assign the manufacturing overhead costs for June to the two products using activity-based costing.

Problem 2 - Cost-Volume-Profit (20 points)

Reavis Company prepared the following income statement for 2005:

REAVIS COMPANY
Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2005

Sales (20,000 units) $600,000
Variable expenses 360,000
Contribution margin 240,000
Fixed expenses 180,000
Net income $ 60,000

Instructions
Answer the following independent questions and show computations to support your answers.

1) What is the company's break-even point in units?
2) How many more units would the company have had to sell to earn net income of $90,000 in 2005?
3) If the company expects a 25% increase in sales volume in 2006, what would be the expected net income in 2006?
4) How much sales dollars would the company have to generate in order to earn a target net income of $110,000 in 2006?
Problem 3 - Standard Costing ( 16 points)

Beachwalk Company uses a standard cost accounting system. During January, 2006, the company reported the following manufacturing variances:

Material price variance $2,000 F
Material quantity variance 2,400 U
Labor price variance 800 U
Labor quantity variance 1,200 U
Overhead controllable 500 F
Overhead volume 3,000 U

In addition, 15,000 units of product were sold at $18 per unit. Each unit sold had a standard cost of $12. Selling and administrative expenses for the month were $10,000.

Instructions
Prepare an income statement for management for the month ending January 31, 2006.

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