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Trompenaar's Research

Trompenaar's (1993) found seven dimensions - concerned with what people do, individualism, time and environment (have been discussed under Hofstede, Kulkhohn and Strodtbeck)

Universalism versus particularism - measures the extent to which people believe that general principles are more, or less, important than unique circumstances and relationships.

Trompennars and Hampden-Turner (1997) identify four main implications of this for international managers, relating to:

a. Contracts
b. The timing of business trips
c. The role of the head office, and
d. Job evaluations and rewards.

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Introduction

Trompenaar's (1993) found seven dimensions - concerned with what people do, individualism, time and environment (have been discussed under Hofstede, Kulkhohn and Strodtbeck)

Universalism versus particularism - measures the extent to which people believe that general principles are more, or less, important than unique circumstances and relationships.

Trompennars and Hampden-Turner (1997) identify four main implications of this for international managers, relating to:

a. Contracts
b. The timing of business trips
c. The role of the head office, and
d. Job evaluations and rewards.

Universalism Features

a. Focus is more on rules than on relationships,
b. Legal contracts are readily drawn up,
c. A trustworthy person is the one who honors his/her contract,
d. There is only one truth or reality - that which has been agreed to,
e. A deal is a deal.

Particularism Features

a. Focus is more on relationships than on rules
b. Legal contracts are readily modified
c. A trustworthy person is the one who honors changing circumstances
d. There are several perspectives on reality relative to each participant
e. Relationships ...

Solution Summary

Trompenaar's (1993) found seven dimensions - concerned with what people do, individualism, time and environment (have been discussed under Hofstede, Kulkhohn and Strodtbeck)

Universalism versus particularism - measures the extent to which people believe that general principles are more, or less, important than unique circumstances and relationships.

Trompennars and Hampden-Turner (1997) identify four main implications of this for international managers, relating to:

a. Contracts
b. The timing of business trips
c. The role of the head office, and
d. Job evaluations and rewards.

Universalism Features

a. Focus is more on rules than on relationships,
b. Legal contracts are readily drawn up,
c. A trustworthy person is the one who honors his/her contract,
d. There is only one truth or reality - that which has been agreed to,
e. A deal is a deal.

Particularism Features

a. Focus is more on relationships than on rules
b. Legal contracts are readily modified
c. A trustworthy person is the one who honors changing circumstances
d. There are several perspectives on reality relative to each participant
e. Relationships evolve.

Specific versus diffuse relationships - deals with the degree of involvement individuals are comfortable with in dealing with other people. Individuals will have various levels to their personalities from a more public level to the inner, more private level.

In more specific cultures like the USA and the UK, people tend to have a large public area and a smaller private area. This private life is kept very separate and guarded closely.

In diffuse cultures like Germany, the 'private' space is usually larger while the public area is smaller and more guarded.

Neutral versus affective relationships - relates to the different ways in which cultures choose to express relationships. In affective cultures, it is natural to express emotion openly. In neutral cultures emotions have to be held in check in order not to confuse work situations.

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