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    Organizations as Cultures Types

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    Discuss the different types of cultures and how they would relate to a predominantly online university specializing in military students. Refer to the Dension Cultural Model. Attached document with links to material.

    Management and Organizational Behavior
    Organizational culture is one of those high-level things that affects individuals within the system in many ways, but over which they have little personal control. As we noted in the introduction, different levels within a company may have different cultures, as may different units at the same level. And to make things more complicated, different people may experience, describe, and interpret the same cultural phenomena in different ways. All that said, there's no doubt that there IS such a thing as organizational culture, and it shapes and interacts with machine phenomena, organic phenomena, and brain phenomena in many ways.
    A good place to begin to learn about the cultural approach to organizations is here:
    Richman, T. (1999) The Culture Wars. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2010, from http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990515/4702.html
    You can learn more about the Deal and Kennedy culture model at:
    Changing Minds.Org (N.D.) Deal and Kennedy's Cultural Model. Retrieved May 16, 2010, from http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/deal_kennedy_culture.htm
    Another culture model that is of considerable interest due to its connection to sociotechnical systems thinking is described here:
    Changing Minds.Org (N.D.) The Competing Values Framework. http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/competing_values.htm
    But the corporate culture model that TUIU recently selected for its owen internal survey of administrators, staff, and faculty is that of Denison:
    Denison Consulting Inc. (ND) The Denison Model. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from http://www.denisonconsulting.com/dc/Research/DenisonModel/tabid/29/Default.aspx
    Case Assignment
    Read these articles on organizational culture, supplemented if you wish with material from the optional readings and perhaps the supplementary background as well, and even other outside reading you might find by yourself to be useful. Then write a short paper describing your assessment of why TUIU decided that the Denison culture model would be more useful in understanding TUIU as a corporate culture than any of the other three you have read about.
    Case Assignment Expectations
    Your paper should be short (4-6 pages, not including cover sheet and references) and to the point. It's important to note that there is no one uniquely correct answer to this question; you aren't being asked to try to reproduce TUIU's own management decisions, but rather to comment on the value of the Denison model given what you know about TUIU from having participated in it for however long you have.
    You are expected to deal with the issues in an integrated fashion, rather than treating them as a series of individual questions to be answered one by one and left at that. To help guide your thinking, however, you will need to consider issues such as:
    • What things about organizations are considered to be parts of organizational culture, and what things are excluded from that category, in terms of the different models
    • Ways in which cultures change, and why (drawing on what you have observed about TUIU for examples if possible)
    • The degree to which culture can be deliberately reshaped in certain directions -- by whom, when, under what conditions, and with what effects
    • Why one model might be more effective in helping TUIU to underatand its own functioning than another, at this point in time
    • What, if anything, that thinking about an "organization as a culture" adds to what we have learned by thinking about an "organization as a machine", an "organization as an organism", and an "organization as a brain".
    You will be particularly assessed on:
    • Your ability to see what the module is all about -- the "big picture" is the culture-like aspects of organizations-- and structure your paper accordingly.
    • Your informed commentary and analysis -- this is as important as your summary of the material in the article -- simply repeating what the article says does not constitute an adequate paper.
    • Your ability to apply the professional language and terminology of the underlying model -- in this case, organizational culture - correctly and helpfully. However interesting your paper about change, it's not going to be complete unless you also show that you can write about it in cultural terms.
    • Your ability to apply the language of the culture metaphor effectively.
    • Your effective and appropriate use of in-text citations to the assigned readings and other source material to support your arguments.

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    Organizational Culture
    Culture can be defined in many different ways, but generally it is defined as pattern of socially transmitted behaviors, beliefs, arts, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. These patterns are considered as the expression of a particular period, class, and community of the population. The predominating attitude and behavior characterize the functioning of a group or organization. The organizational culture is formed as a result of interaction of employees in the workplace. The culture consists of all life experiences, strengths, weaknesses, education, and so forth of employees (Organizational...., n.d).
    Different models of culture
    According to Deal and Kennedy's cultural model, there are four types of cultures that are based on the type of organization. In their definition of culture they have included feedback and rewards and risk as the basis for deciding which culture an organization has. Depending on the combination of these two factors, i.e whether feedback and reward is rapid or slow and whether risk is low or high, cultures are divided as Work-hard, play-hard culture, Process culture, Tough-guy macho culture, and bet-the-company culture (Changing...., n.d).
    The Competing Values Framework is based on four factors which determine the type of culture an organization has. These are Flexibility and discretion, internal focus and integration, External focus and differentiation, and Stability and Control.
    The Denison model measures four critical traits of culture and leadership (mission, adaptability, involvement, and consistency). Each of these traits is further broken down into three indices (for a total of 12) (Denison Culture Model, n.d). This model considers far more factors to be included in the culture than other two models which are based on 2-4 factors.
    Culture and TUIU
    TUIU is a predominant online university specializing in military students. The organization fits into socio-technical networking culture that is unique in itself. Some of the components of socio-technical system are hardware, software, physical environment, people with names and titles, procedures which define operating procedures of the organization. Socio-technical systems employ the right people and the right technological support at the right time within the organizational values. It promotes values within the organization as people with skills, knowledge and skills. Socio-technical corporate culture brings about change in strategies which ...

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    The expert examines organizations for cultures types.

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