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Create a proposal on creation. Start with problem statement then an 'attention-getter'. Go into a literature review and, from there, compare the Big Bang Theory and the Superior Being Theory.
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This is a discussion of the Creation (or Superior Being) Theory, as compared to the Big Bang Theory, using scientific methods of argumentation.
A Proposal on Creation
I. Introduction. This is a consideration of a complex and very old question: whether the universe came into being through chance and random mechanics, i.e., through a Big Bang which was not designed, or whether it came about through the actions of a superior being.
The proposed resolution also explores the difficulty of coming to a conclusion that is acceptable to all, but it also presents the greater probability that the appearance of the universe came about through the actions of a superior being. The empirical work that I will do in this paper will be a review of prevailing theories and the literature on both sides of the question, and a validity study based on clear and logical criteria.
IIa. The dependent variable. For any research paper, the question considered must be one for which there can be answers. Researchers, including sociologists, philosophers, theologians, and scientists, have asked this question,and usually they have come to what they consider to be acceptable answers and conclusions. Because the question of whether the universe came about by chance or by the actions of a superior being has been considered by such a wide variety of scholars, the wide range of variation of answers could have occurred because of a wide range of what each consideration and discipline considers to be valid evidence. Therefore, in order to profitably consider the question at all, research on what can be considered to be valid evidence is also worth exploration.
IIb. What constitutes valid evidence.
Because no humans were in existence when the event or events discussed took place, one line of evidence (although it is not the only one) must come from inference based on logical deductions. Evidence comes in two types: first hand evidence and second hand evidence. First hand evidence is what is found from research that you have done personally. Examples of this are interviews, experiments, surveys or personal experience. Second hand evidence is found from various text that have been supplied and compiled by others. Examples of these are books, periodicals, research papers, and websites.
Concerning sources, some questions that could be asked are:
1 Who is the author? The answer for a credible source is someone who is respected in their field of study, and who in turn cite their sources, which must also be credible.
2 How recent is the source? The most recent source of evidence is frequently the best, because research is an accumulation of credible knowledge over time. When one is studying some area of history, the artifacts of the time studied may be much older, but can still contain accurate information.
3 What is the author's purpose? If an author is biased rather than neutral, or at least is willing to present both sides of a topic, this would affect the accuracy and credibility of the source material. Also one could ask who is funding the research, because this can also influence the conclusions reached. Another point is that if an author is in favour of one point of view, that doesn't mean that the source is unreliable, it means that the researcher must also include the opposite point of view.
4 What type of sources does your audience value? Professional or academic sources that are peer reviewed would best address the research needs of a professional reading audience. If the subject is concerning a local event, people who live in the area, or those who are mainstream experts in accurate journalism writing would be better choices. Younger audiences may prefer internet information more than older audiences.
5. What type of website is it? Internet sources where the user is allowed to edit the content may not be very reliable, and do not fulfill the standard of professional or academic research. However, many of these will cite source material, and if these fulfill the other criteria, they could be used.
III. Literature review. This analytical study will not be a chronology, but following the research standard, it is a summary of recent existing literature, or when historical facts are sought, the closest in time and and/or most accurate literature for the events discussed. For the sake of brevity, the four fields from which literature and theories among philosophers, sociologists, theologians, and scientists.
Sociology: This discipline is about the scientific study of human social activity. Although books on sociology do refer to religion, it is seen as a common development in human culture, rather than addressing the concept of a Creator. John Marconis, in his college textbook Society the Basics stated "Since religion deals with ideas that transcend everyday experience, neither common sense nor sociology can verify or disprove religious doctrine. Religion is a matter of faith, belief anchored in conviction rather than scientific evidence."(Macionis, 2000, p 326) He continued to say that sociologists study religion like they would study other institutions such as families. This is an interesting view, especially since the New Testament in its definition of faith used Greek words that related to evidence and realities. (Hebrews 11:1)
Sociology as described in this textbook does not address the question of origins of the universe, although some terminology suggests agreement with the theory of evolution. Based on that thinking, the three main purposes of religion are presented as: social cohesion, social control, and providing meaning and purpose.
The dysfunctional aspects of religion include the use of religion by the state to provide incentive to engage in wars and other atrocities.(ibid,p 327). Also, when it is observed by some that there is a discontinuity between the morality that is taught and ...
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