Summarize how pathogens circumvent host cellular immune defenses, including references.
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Immune evasion strategies vary according to the identity of the pathogen, and are intimately connected with their lifestyle within the host. For example the character of the immune response is very different against a parasitic worm than it is against an intracellular virus infection. There are however some key points that are in common between the different strategies. Many pathogens have strategies to reduce the inflammatory response, as this response attracts and activates immune cells to the location of the infection, which will be detrimental to pathogen survival. Inhibition of the adaptive immune response is also a key feature of many infections.
Many bacterial infections begin at mucosal sites, and epithelial cells lining the site of infection produce chemokines that can attract immune cells to begin the inflammatory process. However this can be interrupted by the injection of bacterial proteins through type III secretion systems, that ...
This abstract gives an detailed description of how various classes of pathogens evade the host immune response.