Microbiology was a study of living organisms that scientists had some trouble proving to the general public that they even existed. One of the reasons for this was that people could not see the organism. That is, not until the microscope was invented. Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1674 to 1724) was one of the pioneers in the making of microscopes, His observations are among the first recorded of bacteria, yeasts and protozoa.
Another pioneering microbiologist was Robert Koch (1890) who is known for postulates that help establish the agent for a particular disease. Koch's Postulates:
1. The organism should be associated with the lesions of the disease in all cases and absent from healthy individuals.
2. The organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture outside the diseased host.
3. When this culture is inoculated into a healthy host this host must develop the symptoms of the disease.
4. The organism must be re-isolated from the experimentally infected host grown again in a culture and infect once again a healthy host.
These postulates can be used for human, animals and plants for establishing the disease agent. They are still used today even though some complications and modifications must be used for certain obligate parasitic organisms (must live within a host).
The development and use of the vaccination against smallpox was aided by the work of another early microbiologist Edward Jenner. Edward Jenner was a country doctor working in England around 1798. He observed those individuals who were exposed to cowpox, a related virus that infect cattle, and these individuals did not contract the smallpox virus. He was the first to use an artificial exposure to the cowpox virus to stimulate the human immune response. Edward Jenner's early work put to use one of the first vaccinations for smallpox.
In this discussion share your opinion as to which of these early microbiologists' contribution was the most important and explain your reasoning. Remember to comment on a classmate's response as well. Please contribute before the second Friday of the module.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 17, 2018, 12:04 pm ad1c9bdddf
One of the most important contribution to microbiology and medicine was the early work of Edward Jenner in the development of the first vaccine for smallpox. Smallpox is a devastating disease that wiped out many civilization in ancient times.(1) The disease greatly responsible for the decline of the Roman Empire, the Aztecs population, and the Incas population. Smallpox affected every population of the world. In the 18th century, there were 400,000 people died annually of smallpox. Most survivors went blind and developed disfigured scars. ...
The expert examines Edward Jenner Vaccination of a living organism.
Biotechnology Living Organism Processes
Biotechnology allows the use of living organisms or their processes for human needs or purposes. Currently, this topic includes such general examples as cloning, stem cells (adult, umbilical cord, and embryonic), DNA fingerprinting, biological warfare, bioremediation, genetically modified organisms, vaccines, and transgenic plants and animals to name a few. In this assignment, you will explore specific examples of biotechnology applications.
Biotechnology is the use of a living thing or any part of a living thing to make a product or process that improves human life. For this assignment, discuss the following:
•What are some of the examples of biotechnology that have made improvements to your life?
•Describe how 1 of these has made your life better.
In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food derived from cloned animals. In addition, these products will not need to be labeled as "cloned" or "from clones" (Black, 2008). The FDA explains that you will not be eating the clone itself. It takes thousands of dollars to clone a food animal such as a cow or pig. Animals that are cloned for improved food production will be used for a breeding program to produce many offspring with the desirable traits for increased meat or milk yield. These offspring of the clones will be fair game for food. Discuss the following:
•Do you think there are differences between a clone and a "normal" animal?
•How do you feel about eating a cloned animal?
•Is your opinion of eating a cloned plant different?