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HIV

In this module you have learned of the importance of the immune system in protecting against disease. For the Module 4 case assignment you will investigate the virus HIV and its effect on the human immune system, as well as important topics in infectious disease in general.

It is estimated that over 34 million people globally are living with HIV/AIDS. (http://www.avert.org) Acqiured immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been described as the most common secondary immune deficiency disease in the world. Infection with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) has been identified as the cause of AIDS. For the module 4 case assignment prepare a paper addressing the following:

Provide a general discussion of HIV/AIDS. In your paper discuss the structure of HIV and how the viral structure facilitates entry into host cells. Begin your research in your Introductory Microbiology textbook, using "Ch 11: Microbial Epidemiology," Ch 7: Viral Effects on Cells," and "Ch 17: Viruses and Prions" in A Concise Manual of Pathogenic Microbiology.

Discuss the function of HIV protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase.
Explain how this pathogen causes disease in the host.
Identify the characteristics of HIV which account for its transmission. Include the basic epidemiology of this virus and its method of transfer.
The normal function of the immune system. Be sure to explain the function of B-lymphocytes, killer T-lymphocytes, helper T-lymphocytes, and macrophages.
The function of the complement system.
How HIV alters normal function of the immune system.
Note: The assignment will require you to engage in independent research. Begin by reading through the chapters listed above.

Solution Preview

Provide a general discussion of HIV/AIDS. In your paper discuss the structure of HIV and how the viral structure facilitates entry into host cells. Begin your research in your Introductory Microbiology textbook, using "Ch 11: Microbial Epidemiology," Ch 7: Viral Effects on Cells," and "Ch 17: Viruses and Prions" in A Concise Manual of Pathogenic Microbiology.
Discuss the function of HIV protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase.
Explain how this pathogen causes disease in the host.
Identify the characteristics of HIV which account for its transmission. Include the basic epidemiology of this virus and its method of transfer.
The normal function of the immune system. Be sure to explain the function of B-lymphocytes, killer T-lymphocytes, helper T-lymphocytes, and macrophages.
The function of the complement system.
How HIV alters normal function of the immune system.

Introduction

HIV is a member of a class of viruses called the retroviruses, which contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. HIV is an RNA virus because it has RNA as its genome. When the HIV RNA virus infect a host cell, the HIV virus contain an enzyme reverse transcriptase that convert its RNA genome into DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The HIV virus proceed to self-replicate using the host cell's machinery.

HIV belongs to the subgroup within the retrovirus family called the lentiviruses. The lentivirus are "slow viruses". Because lentiviruses are known to have long incubation time period between initial infection and the beginning of serious symptoms. This is why people infected with HIV are unaware of their HIV infection and spread the virus to others.

HIV is transmitted through sperm, blood, and other bodily fluids. There are several routes of transmission through : anal and vaginal sex; contaminated needles, blood and blood ...

Solution Summary

HIV is a member of a class of viruses called the retroviruses, which contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. HIV is an RNA virus because it has RNA as its genome. When the HIV RNA virus infect a host cell, the HIV virus contain an enzyme reverse transcriptase that convert its RNA genome into DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The HIV virus proceed to self-replicate using the host cell's machinery, and eventually destroying the host cell, including the T cells of the host immune system.

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